ELEMENTS OF THE
MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE
By: Mahmoud E. Yousif
E-mail: yousif@exmfpropulsions.com/
^{C}/_{O} Physics Department - The
PACS No:
41.20.-q
Magnetic
interaction hypotheses (MIH) consider magnetic lines of force (MLF)
as an interaction medium for charged particles, where several mechanisms take
place. For importance of MLF, this paper shows elements such as,
the number of MLF per unit area, number of MLF along sides of an
area, distance between two MLF, as derived from specific magnetic
field. It also shows how to obtain magnetic field when these elements are
known.
1- INTRODUCTION
Based on the magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH) [1], magnetic lines of force (MLF) or
magnetic centers
of intensities (MLF) have primary elements, such as the number of MLF in square metre, number of MLF along side of such an area and the distance between
two MLF. Knowledge of these elements represents the bases for
building higher blocks for phenomenon such as the energization of charged
particles on macro-scales. These higher blocks could help unlock several
mysteries, among them are: The nuclear fusion mechanism [2], aurora mechanisms
[3] and others [4]. This paper report derivation of these elements, it also gives the equivalent
magnetic field when any of these elements is known.
2- ELEMENTS OF MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE
By
introducing the convention that specific magnetic lines of force (MLF) represent a specific magnetic field, Michael Faraday
gave amount producing one volt [5]. Since the number of MLF is the main factor behind magnetic field strength (B),
[6], therefore magnetic flux density and magnetic field strength could be
represented by an equivalent number of MLF, where the magnetic field strength B, defined as "
the number of flux lines per unit area that permeate the magnetic field, [7] is
given by:
Since 1 Weber =10^{8} Maxwell (M)
[8], therefore Eq.{1} could be given by:
1 web = 1 Tesla. meter^{2} = 10^{8}
M
Magnetic field given by Eq. {2} is caused by
specific number of MLF. As showed by Faraday, one volt can be
induced in a coil or a wire if it cuts 10^{8} MLF per
second, induced e.m.f. is one volt per turn [5].
Therefore any magnetic field strength
"B" is transferable to an equivalent number of MLF such
that
_{}
Where, B is the magnetic field in Tesla (T),
N_{A} is the equivalent number of MLF in a
cross-sectional area of one square metre and due to the field B, 10^{8}
is the determined number of MLF in cross-sectional area of
one meter square due to magnetic field strength.
Number of MLF along
each sides, is denoted by "N_{S}", it is given by:
_{}
Where L_{S} give the number of MLF along a
distance of one meter.
Along each meter, the distance between two MLF, varied
accordance to the strength of a given
magnetic field, this distance is denoted by "D" such that
_{}
3-
DERIVING MAGNETIC FIELD FROM THE ELEMENTS
If specific number of MLF "N_{A}"
is known, the equivalent magnetic field intensity B is derived by
_{}
If the number N_{S} of the MLF along
one metre is known, the equivalent magnetic field intensity ' B ' is given by
_{}
If the
distance D between two MLF is known, its equivalent magnetic field
intensity is derived by
_{}
Fig.1. Cross-Sectional area showing elements of the geomagnetic lines of
force at Nairobi (Kenya) observatory, as given by example 1, and shown in Table
1.
4- EXAMPLE
Measurements
of geomagnetic field intensity, was carried out at Nairobi Observatory centre
in June-1980 (Prof. J.P. Patel Physics Department,
Using Eqs.{3}, {4}, and {5} the number of MLF in square metre, the number
of the MLF along one metre and the
distance between two MLF at the
observatory were calculated and are given in Table.1, while Fig.1 shows layout of these elements.
ELEMENTS |
VALUE |
N_{A} |
34101 lines |
N_{S} |
58.39606151 lines/metre |
D |
0.017124442 metre (or1.7124442 cm) |
Table.1. The elements of geomagnetic lines of force at Nairobi
Observatory. It shows number of the geomagnetic lines of force (N_{A}),
number along each sides N_{S} (of one metre),
and the distance between two magnetic lines of force (D), using Eqs.{3}, {4}, and {5}, as shown in Fig.1.
5- CONCLUSION
1- Magnetic lines of force (MLF) could have the name of magnetic centers of
intensities (MLF).
1- Elements of MLF enrich the knowledge of understanding magnetic field.
2- Any magnetic
field or geomagnetic field elements can be determined using these equations.
3- Since the aim
of this paper is to prepare the ground for further studies, therefore this
paper is regarded as a reference.
My gratitude to my sister Safya
and her husband Abubakar Mohamad
for their hospitality. The Chairman of Physics Department, University of
Nairobi, Prof. B.O. Kola, Dr Lino Gwak
and Dr John Buers Awuor in
the Physics Department.
[1] Yousif, Mahmoud E. “The Magnetic
Interaction”, Comprehensive Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 5-3,
June/July 2003.
[2] Elwell D. and A.J. 1978 Pointon
Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Ellis Horwood
Ltd.
[3] Hultqvist 1967 (
[4] The Report of The National Commission on Space 1986
Pioneering The Space Frontier, Bantom Books,
[5] Nightingale E., Magnetism and Electricity, G. Bell
and Sons Ltd.
[6] The
[7] Trinklein, F. E., Modern
Physics, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, N.Y, 1990).
[8] The Vacuum Schemelze Hand
Book 1979 Soft Magnetic Materials, Edit. By Richard Boll, Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Heyden
&Son Ltd. Pp 82.
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