By: Mahmoud E. Yousif

E-mail: yousif@exmfpropulsions.com/

C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi

P.O.Box 30197 - Nairobi-Kenya


PACS No: 41.20.-q




Magnetic interaction hypotheses (MIH) consider magnetic lines of force (MLF) as an interaction medium for charged particles, where several mechanisms take place. For importance of MLF, this paper shows elements such as, the number of MLF per unit area, number of MLF along sides of an area, distance between two MLF, as derived from specific magnetic field. It also shows how to obtain magnetic field when these elements are known.




Based on the magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH) [1], magnetic lines of force (MLF) or magnetic centers of intensities (MLF) have primary elements, such as the number of MLF in square metre, number of MLF along side of such an area and the distance between two MLF. Knowledge of these elements represents the bases for building higher blocks for phenomenon such as the energization of charged particles on macro-scales. These higher blocks could help unlock several mysteries, among them are: The nuclear fusion mechanism [2], aurora mechanisms [3] and others [4]. This paper report derivation of these elements, it also gives the equivalent magnetic field when any of these elements is known.





By introducing the convention that specific magnetic lines of force (MLF) represent a specific magnetic field, Michael Faraday gave amount producing one volt [5]. Since the number of MLF is the main factor behind magnetic field strength (B), [6], therefore magnetic flux density and magnetic field strength could be represented by an equivalent number of MLF, where the magnetic field strength B, defined as " the number of flux lines per unit area that permeate the magnetic field, [7] is given by:


Since 1 Weber =108 Maxwell (M) [8], therefore Eq.{1} could be given by:


1 web = 1 Tesla. meter2 = 108 M


Magnetic field given by Eq. {2} is caused by specific number of MLF. As showed by Faraday, one volt can be induced in a coil or a wire if it cuts 108 MLF per second, induced e.m.f. is one volt per turn [5].

Therefore any magnetic field strength "B" is transferable to an equivalent number of MLF such that


Where, B is the magnetic field in Tesla (T), NA is the equivalent number of MLF in a cross-sectional area of one square metre and due to the field B, 108 is the determined number of MLF in cross-sectional area of one meter square due to magnetic field strength.

Number of MLF along each sides, is denoted by "NS", it is given by:

Where LS give the number of MLF along a distance of one meter. 

Along each meter, the distance between two MLF, varied accordance to the strength of  a given magnetic field, this distance is denoted by "D" such that



If specific number of MLF "NA" is known, the equivalent magnetic field intensity B is derived by

If the number NS of the MLF along one metre is known, the equivalent magnetic field intensity ' B ' is given by

If the distance D between two MLF is known, its equivalent magnetic field intensity is derived by




Fig.1. Cross-Sectional area showing elements of the geomagnetic lines of force at Nairobi (Kenya) observatory, as given by example 1, and shown in Table 1.



Measurements of geomagnetic field intensity, was carried out at Nairobi Observatory centre in June-1980 (Prof. J.P. Patel Physics Department, University of Nairobi), and gave 34101 Gamma (or 3.4101x10-5 Tesla).

Using Eqs.{3}, {4}, and {5} the number of MLF in square metre, the number of the MLF along one metre and the distance between two MLF at the observatory were calculated and are given in Table.1,  while Fig.1 shows layout of these elements.









 34101 lines




 58.39606151 lines/metre




 0.017124442 metre (or1.7124442 cm)


Table.1. The elements of geomagnetic lines of force at Nairobi Observatory. It shows number of the geomagnetic lines of force (NA), number along each sides NS (of one metre), and the distance between two magnetic lines of force (D), using Eqs.{3}, {4}, and {5}, as shown in Fig.1.




1- Magnetic lines of force (MLF) could have the name of magnetic centers of intensities (MLF).

1- Elements of MLF enrich the knowledge of understanding magnetic field.

2- Any magnetic field or geomagnetic field elements can be determined using these equations.

3- Since the aim of this paper is to prepare the ground for further studies, therefore this paper is regarded as a reference.





My gratitude to my sister Safya and her husband Abubakar Mohamad for their hospitality. The Chairman of Physics Department, University of Nairobi, Prof. B.O. Kola, Dr Lino Gwak and Dr John Buers Awuor in the Physics Department.




[1] Yousif, Mahmoud E. “The Magnetic Interaction”, Comprehensive Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 5-3, June/July 2003.

 [2] Elwell D. and A.J. 1978 Pointon Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Ellis Horwood Ltd. Chester.

[3] Hultqvist 1967 (Aurora) Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena Vol.I, Edt. By S. Matsushita and Wallace H. Campbell, Academic Press, New York.

[4] The Report of The National Commission on Space 1986 Pioneering The Space Frontier, Bantom Books, New York.

[5] Nightingale E., Magnetism and Electricity, G. Bell and Sons Ltd. London.

[6] The Cambridge Encyclopedia 1994, Edit. By David Crystal, Cambridge University Press.

[7] Trinklein, F. E., Modern Physics, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, N.Y, 1990).

[8] The Vacuum Schemelze Hand Book 1979 Soft Magnetic Materials, Edit. By Richard Boll, Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Heyden &Son Ltd. Pp 82.



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