_______________________________
THE MAGNETIC
INTERACTION
(Modified)
Mahmoud
E. Yousif
Email: yousif@exmfpropulsions.com/
^{C}/_{O}
Physics Department  The
PACS No: 41.20.q, 21.10.Hw, 21.30.x, 94.20.Qq,
94.10.Rk, 34.20.Cf, 32.10.Dk, 34.50.Fa, 32.30.r
ABSTRACT
A magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH) is suggested which
leads to a reinterpretation of the interaction mechanism for the magnetic
force. This MIH is used to explain energization of charged particles on
micro scale. Further considerations including the nuclear force, interatomic
stability, and the reproduction of spectral lines, are
reported.
1:0 INTRODUCTION
Energization mechanism for charged particles has been
a subject of much interest in the plasma physics [1]. The Sun emits these
particles during various phenomena (such as, the solar flares, and the solar
wind), [2,3] all of which interact with the geomagnetic field giving rise to
several phenomena such as, the ring current, the Van Allan radiation belt, and
the aurora in which the particles are highly accelerated, [4,5,6]. Many
theories have tried to explain such accelerations. Among them are: acceleration
by hydromagnetics shock waves, acceleration through atmospheric dynamo process,
and the electric field acceleration^{ }[3]. But they have not been able
to duplicate or explain the energization mechanism causing these phenomena^{
}[7]. Disclosing of this mechanism could help unlocking many of present
unsolved mysteries, such as, the nuclear force formula [8], nuclear fusion
mechanism [9], aurora mechanisms [10] and several other phenomena [11]. It is
known that the forces keeping electrons around nucleus, are both the
electrostatic and the electromagnetism [12], but no mechanism had been
suggested for it. This paper however tries to tackle these problems by (I)
reinterpreting the nature and mechanism of the magnetic force, and (ii) suggesting
a magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH), through which any generalised
magnetic field interacts with a circular magnetic field (CMF) and (iii) redefining the spinning magnetic field
(SMF)
interaction in terms of the nuclear force that binds the nucleons. Using both
the CMF
and SMF
the atom formation, interatomic energization processes and the reproduction of
the spectral lines are considered. MIH was published in 2003 [13],
the present modification readdress among others, the interatomic forces.
2:0 THE MAGNETIC FORCE
2:1 THE CIRCULAR MAGNETIC FIELD (CMF)
Through experience [14], the attractive and repulsive
forces between two conductors C_{1} and C_{2}
carrying electric currents I_{1} and I_{2}
separated by distance d metre, adopted for the definition of electric current
[14], is given electrically by
But since the above conductors (C_{1}
and C_{2}) carrying electric currents (I_{1}
and I_{2}) therefore, the circular magnetic field (CMF)
produced by each at a distance r_{C}
from the conductor is given by
Where, k= 2x10^{7} Newton per square ampere
[12].
As supposed by Faraday [15] magnetic lines of force
tends to shorten in length or repelling one another sideways, such that the
force obtained by Eq.(1) could be conceived as due to both conductor’s CMF
shorten or repelling each other, as shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, such that the
repulsive and attractive force is give magnetically by
Where, both B_{c1} and B_{C2}
are CMF (in Tesla) produced by conductors C_{1}
and C_{2} respectively, while r_{1}
and r_{2} are the CMF's radii in metre, l_{1}
is the length of the conductor in metre.
Fig.1. Production of circular magnetic field (CMF)
[12], the figure also shows the direction of CMF, the interaction
line and direction of the produced force.
The Catapult force or the motor effect [12] is given
by:
Where, B_{1} is the magnetic
field, l_{2} is the length of the conductor cutting the
field in metre; I_{1} is the current in the conductor in
Ampere and the magnetic force F_{e.m}_{,}
given by electricmagnetic parameters is in Newton.
Fig .2. Crosssection views of conductors carrying electric
current. Produced circular magnetic field (CMF) [12] interacted
magnetically producing the magnetic force. Direction of both CMF’s
determined the direction of the force [12], in (a) it is attractive, while
repulsive in (b).
The repulsive and attractive nature of magnetic lines
of force causing Catapult force above, is express magnetically by
Where, B_{1} is a general
magnetic field, B_{C2} is the CMF produced
by the conductor, r_{2} is the radius of the CMF, l_{1}
is the length of the conductor producing the CMF that interact
with B_{1}, the magnetic force F_{m}
is in Newton. Table.1. Shows the parameters relating magnetic force given by
Eqs.(1), { 3}, (4)
and {5}.
I_{1}=I_{2} A 
l_{1} m 
D M 
R M 
B_{1}=B_{C1}=B_{C2} T 
r_{1}=r_{2}=l_{3} m 
F_{e}=F_{m}=F_{e.m}_{.}=F_{m} N 
1 
1 
2.0 
1.0 
2x10^{7}^{} 
0.707106781 
1.0 x10^{7}^{} 
1 
1 
1.6 
0.8 
2.5x10^{7}^{} 
0.632455532 
1.25x10^{7}^{} 
1 
1 
1.2 
0.6 
3.333333333x10^{7}^{} 
0.547722557 
1.666666667x10^{7}^{} 
1 
1 
1.0 
0.5 
4x10^{7}^{} 
0.5 
2x10^{7}^{} 
1 
1 
0.6 
0.3 
6.666666667x10^{7}^{} 
0.387298334 
3.333333333x10^{7} 
1 
1 
0.4 
0.2 
1x10^{7}^{} 
0.316227766 
5x10^{7}^{} 
1 
1 
0.2 
0.1 
2x10^{7}^{} 
0.223606797 
1x10^{6}^{} 
Table.1. Samples of parameters that gives an
equivalent magnetic force in Eqs.(1), {3}, (4) and
{5}, when used in its proper equation.
From both Maxwell's and Einstein's theories about
magnetic field produced by charge in motion [16], it can be deduced that the
magnitude of the CMF (or B_{2e} and B_{2p}
for electron and proton respectively) produced by a charged particle in motion^{
}[17, 18, 19] is given by
Where, c is the speed of light, q
is the particle's charge in coulombs, v is the charged particles
velocity in ms^{1}, r_{m}
is the magnetic radius at which the CMF is measured (representing
r_{me} and r_{mp}
or electron's and proton's magnetic radius respectively). The circular magnetic
field B_{2} is given in Tesla.
Fig.3. ECMF and PCMF [16,17,18] (B_{2e} and B_{2p}
respectively) of equal energies interacted with magnetic field (B_{1}),
at specific points. Resulted magnetic force (F_{m})
caused electron and proton to gyrate oppositely at specific radius.
The Lorentz force ascribed to the existence of
electrostatic field, used in explaining the characteristics of the magnetic
force [20], while the magnetic force as associated with moving source charges
is related to interaction of current bearing wire [21] shown by Eq.(1), the
force is given by
Where, q is the angle between the trajectory and the fields. This force, is given with electricmagnetic
parameters can be conceived to be caused by the magnetic interaction, where, as
shown in Fig.3 the CMF (B_{2}) given by Eq.(6) interact magnetically with the general magnetic field B_{1}
such that
Where, q is the angle between the two fields.
While Fig.3 shows the magnetic interaction patterns between both the electron's
CMF
and the proton's CMF with the general magnetic field B_{1},
Fig.4, shows variation of F_{m} with r_{m}.
2:2 THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD (SMF) and NUCLEAR
FORCE
2:2:1 THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD
The magnetic field produced above the poles of the
spinning nucleon [22] is due to total magnetic field (B_{T}), and is
here identified as the spinning magnetic field (SMF). For proton, the
magnitude of the total magnetic field (B_{Tp})
produced above each pole as shown in Fig.5.a, is derived from Newton’s second
law, Coulomb’s electrostatic law and BiotSavart law
for magnetic field outside a loop [14], given by:
Where, B_{1p} is proton's SMF
(B_{1U}
for nucleus hydrogen atom), f_{ps} is the proton's
spinning frequency, r_{O} is the radial
distance from proton surface to a point at which B_{TP} is
produced (r_{o}=0.468 fm), r_{r} is distance from proton's surface along
the magnetic field, m_{O} is the permeability of the free space, e_{O}_{ }is the permittivity
of free space.
Fig.5. The
proton’s dipole spinning, magnetic field (PSMF) production [21], above the surface in (a) it also
shows two PSMF
interacted magnetically. In (b) attractive produced magnetic force increased
exponentially till r = 0.936fm (r_{r} = 0.468fm) (fm = 1015 m), then the force
decreased, where it becomes repulsive, due to PSMF characteristics, using Eqs. {12}, all of which
showing nuclear force (Fn) characteristics.
2:2:2 THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FORCE or (SMFc) THE NUCLEAR FORCE
When opposite proton's spinning magnetic field (PSMF)
comes under the field influence of each other as shown in Fig.5:a, an
attractive spinning magnetic force (SMF_{CA}) or (F_{NA})
is established as in Fig.5:b, and derived from Eq.{8}, this force is given by:
Which we here interpret as the nuclear force, In according to characteristics given [8]. The SMFc
or nuclear force F_{N} varies as shown in Fig.5.b, whereby at relatively
large distances the attraction of both SMF dominates up to r_{r} = 0.468fm (r
=0.936fm), (fm = 10^{15}) as given by Eq.{10}.
Thereafter, for r_{r} smaller than
0.468 fm, magnitude of the SMF starts to decrease and so does F_{NA}
given by the right hand part of Eq.{11}.
For smaller values than r_{r}
= 0.468 fm, the preceding parts of the poles with similar SMFs interact with each
other thus producing an F_{NR} opposing the two
protons from fusing together, given by the left part of Eq.{11}. This repulsive
force (F_{NR}) is the resultant of both two forces, as shown
in Fig.5b, given by:
Where, n is the number of steps moved by SMF
starting from r = 0.8 fm (r_{r}
= 0.4fm), r_{x} is the distance
moved at each step (r = 0.05fm), the characteristics are shown in
Fig.5.
Combining Eqs.{10} and {11},
the spinning magnetic force (F_{S}) or the nuclear force
(F_{N})
is given by:
3:0 ENERGIZATION OF CHARGED
PARTICLES
Assuming a system (such as that of Fig.3) if the
magnetic field which is denoted by B_{1} is in three
dimensions rotation or motion, when an electron's or proton's CMF
(B_{2e}
and B_{2p}
respectively) interacts with the B_{1}, then the resulting
magnetic force between both fields also joins the charged particles such that
they all move with the magnetic field (B_{1}). Thus if
the magnetic force travels a distance d_{K} (d_{X} = d_{Y} + d_{Z})
in unit time, then the work done is given by [23]
Which is equal to the total (kinetic and potential)
change in energy of the body acted on by the force [24] since the displacement
and the magnetic force are in the same sense and direction, therefore from
Eq.{13} the kinetic energy K of the charged particles is given
by:
Where, B_{1} is the rotating
magnetic field, B_{2} is the CMF, r_{m} is the
radius of gyration, q is the angle between the two fields at interaction
moment.
Fig.6, shows the relationship between different solar
wind electrons velocities verses values at which it has been energized at
microscopic level, at the magnetopause boundaries, where q = 90^{O}.
4:0 MAGNETIC INTERACTION AND ATOMIC MODEL
4:1 INTERATOMIC FORCES AND STABILITY
Based on this hypothesis, whenever an electron comes
under the influence of a nucleus electric field at an electrostatic distance r_{e}
the electron is accelerated by the electrostatic force such that its velocity v_{c} and CMF increases. Thus at a specific
radius regulated by m_{e} in Eq.{26}, the electron’s CMF
will interact magnetically with the
nucleus spin magnetic field (NSMF) forming an atom, or increasing
the nucleus constituent. NSMF in its simplest form comprising
the proton spinning magnetic field PSMF to form a hydrogen atom when
interacted with electron's CMF.
At specific electrostatic atomic radius r_{ee} the electrostatic force F_{e}
is balanced with the produced magnetic force F_{m}, and both
forces are balanced with the centripetal force (F_{C})}, leading
to the stability of the atom as shown in Fig.7, for hydrogen atom and given
generally by Eq.{15} bellow, while the degree of this
stability is determined by m_{e} in Eq.{26}. The balance of forces is such that
Where, B_{1U} is the nucleus SMF,
B_{2e} is orbital electron’ CMF, m_{e}
is electron's mass, r_{ee} is the
electron's electrostatic atomic radius, r_{me} is
the electron's magnetic radius, v_{o} is
electron's natural orbital velocity around the nucleus, e_{0} is the permittivity of the free space.
Fig.7. Stable hydrogen atom, where Electron CMF
(B_{2e}) interacted with Proton SMF (B_{1p}),
then at specific magnetic radius (r_{me})
and electrostatic radius (r_{ee}),
both magnetic force (Fm) and electrostatic force (F_{e})
are balanced with the centripetal force (F_{C}
).
Since Eq.{8} represents
Eq.(7), therefore the above equation becomes
From Eq.{16}, the following
is derived:
From the balance of electrostatic and magnetic forces
given by Eq.{17} above, the electrostatic orbital
atomic radius r_{ee} at which an
electron stabilised is given by
Relating Eq.{17} with angular
momentum introduced by Bohr, in his atomic hypothesis [25], the electrostatic
orbital radius r_{ee} is also given
by
While the orbital velocity v_{O}
could be derived from Eq.{32}, or from Bohr atomic
hypothesis [25]
Where, h is Planck's constant.
4:2 ELECTRONS’ PARAMETERS AT ORBITAL RADIUS
We assumed that the stability of an atom at certain
orbital radius is due to the balance of both F_{e} and F_{m}
with F_{C},
as shown in Fig.7, with parameters given in Table.2. Hence the electrostatic
atomic radius r_{ee} (all of the
following parameters are derived from Eq.{17}, as given
in Table.2.) at orbital level take the form
While the magnetic radius r_{me}
(equal to Bohr radius r_{B})
takes the form
Where, r_{B}
is Bohr radius, and the SMF radius r_{r}
is given by:
And the NSMF (B_{1U}) or B_{1p}
for hydrogen atom is given by:
For hydrogen atom, parameters obtained due to the
balance of both F_{e} and F_{m}
with F_{C} is given in Table.2. From Eq.{22},
the electrostatic atomic radius also could be given by
The flipping effect (i.e. the magnetic moment)
produced in magnetic resonance experiments [9] are seen as, the response of an
energetic charged particle's CMF to any specific magnetic field.
For an electron in an atom, this magnetic moment (m_{e} = E_{O}/B_{U})
is obtained by substituting electron’s orbital energy and nucleus SMF
given by Eq.{24} in the following sequence
Where, B_{1U} is nucleus spinning
magnetic field (NSMF), m_{B} is Bohr magneton, m_{e} is atomic electron magnetic moment related to atom
stability.
Eq.{26} can be used to determine the stability orbit
for both the electron's CMF and NSMF as shown in Fig.7,
and numerically as in Table.2, for atomic hydrogen.
Parameters 
Magnitudes 

Electrostatic and Magnetic Forces 
F_{e} = F_{m} 
8.257749961 x10^{8} N 
InterAtomic Forces 
2F_{c} = F_{e}+F_{m}

1.6515499922x10^{7} N 
Electrostatic Atomic Radius 
r_{ee} ^{} 
0.528566407 x10^{10 }m 
Magnetic Radius 
r_{me} = r_{B}_{ }^{} 
0.5291793603 x10^{10 }m 
Stable Orbital Velocity 
V_{O} 
2190219.655 m.s^{1} 
SMF radius 
r_{r}_{ } 
2.546269208 x10^{12}m 
NSMF 
B_{1}_{U} 
235322.5112 T 
Electron's SMF 
B_{2e} 
0.417706473 T 
Magnetic Moment 
µ_{e } 
9.284770122 x10^{24}_{ }J/T 
Table.2. Electron's parameters at natural orbit in for
hydrogen atom. This Table
should be read in connection with Fig.7, and Eqs.{16, 18,
19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 31}.
5:0 INTERATOMIC ENERGIZATION
and the REPRODUCTION of SPECTRAL LINE
From the magnetic interaction hypothesis based on Eqs.{8}, {13} and {14}, any electron gyrating at its natural
orbit in an atom under the influence of the spinning magnetic force,
continually undergoes an energization process so that it acquires an amount of
orbital energy
With reference to Fig.8, whenever such an electron is
subjected to an excitation potential, both its kinetic energy and the CMF
(B_{2e})
increases and hence the magnetic force increases as well. This force increases
the orbital radius so that the radial energy change is obtained as
Where, v_{D}
is the excitation velocity, r_{n} is
the excited orbital radius. The quanta
of energy acquired by the electron at that radius will be radiated as an
electromagnetic radiation, the sequence of which is shown in Table,3, with the wavelength given by
From Eqs.{18} and {27}, the
general excitation energy at any radial distance within the atomic excitation
range becomes
Where, v_{n} = v_{D} + v_{O} , i.e. the excited radial velocity.
E_{D} Ve 
V_{n}_{} m.s 
B_{2n} T 
F_{n} x10^{7} N 
r_{n}_{} x10^{11} m 
F_{r} x10^{8} N 
E_{n} Ve 
l Å 
5.0 
3516424.623 
0.6706328886 
1.325791924 
8.496039785 
5.000169275 
13.257470411 
0935.8503044 
3.399525 
3283759.893 
0.626260367 
1.238070714 
7.933898117 
4.122957183 
10.20833388 
1215.380283 
1.0 
2783316.547 
0.530818604 
1.049389364 
6.724776059 
2.236143679 
4.692853031 
2643.809136 
Table.3. Samples of sequences through which an excited
electron in hydrogen atom transverse, before radiating specific wavelength using
Eq.{28}, as shown in Fig.8.
Thus the radiated wavelength l due to such a specific energy quantum (an example of
which is shown in Table.4, to be compared with Table.3.) is given by
Hence,
No 
E_{D} Ve 
V_{n}_{} m.s 
l Å 
1 
5.0 
3516424.623 
0935.8503044 
2 
3.399525 
3283759.893 
1215.380284 
3 
1.0 
2783316.547 
2643.809137 
Table.4 Reproduction of spectral lines by excited
electrons, using Eq.{31} and Eq.{32}, reducing steps used
in Table.3.
Fig.8.
Spectral line sequential reproduction for hydrogen atom. Each quanta of series
energy is due to multiplication of both the magnetic level accelerating force (Fn)
by the spinning distance (ds).
After radiating the quanta of energy, electron is accelerated back to the
natural orbit by Fee.
6:0 DISCUSSIONS
1 Although magnetic fields are produced
due to relative motion of charged particles, the direct cause of the magnetic
force is here considered to result from the interaction of magnetic fields.
This interaction explains the mechanism behind the attractive and the repulsive
forces between any two wires carrying electric currents as shown in Fig.2. It
also explains the orbital excitation energy characteristics for charged
particles and why the direction gyration of an electron is opposite to that of
a proton, as shown in Fig.3.
2 The exponential nature of Fig.5 is due to the
production of spinning magnetic fields, and above proton's surface (r
= 0.468fm) as proved for neutron’s SMF [26], compared with Fig.4.
3 The exact measured magnitude of the nuclear force
for the proton is determined by the magnitude of produced B_{Tp}
given by Eq.{9}. In this case it is related to the
magnetic moment value. Since the value of the proton's angular frequency (w_{p}) has been determined as 0.5 rad. sec. (i.e. from Eqs.{26},{27},{28},{29},{30}, and {31}), therefore its spinning
frequency (f_{ps}) is of the magnitude of 0.079577471 s^{1},
from which B_{Tp} is derived.
4 The CMF interaction with the magnetic
field (B_{1}) is represented in Fig.3. The same mechanism
occurred inside an atom where the balance of both the F_{e} and F_{m}
with F_{C} at specific r_{ee}
and r_{me} brings
stability to the atom, as shown in Fig.7.
5 The nature of the magnetic interaction is that, the
weaker CMF (B_{2}) interacts with the
stronger magnetic field (B_{1}) at two specific
points. These two points arise due to
the variation in the strength of B_{1p} as shown in Fig.7,
for hydrogen atom.
6 From Eqs.{18}, {20} and {24},
the value of r_{ee} include
proton's radius r_{p}, and electron's
radius r_{e}. Both are thought to be equal, and derived from
Eq.{9}.
7 The Bohr radius (r_{B}), giving in the
right hand side of Eq.{22}, is resulted from the balance of both the Coulomb's
electrostatic and centripetal forces, (with value of 0.5291793603x10^{10}
m) [27, 28], it gives the same value given by the magnetic radius (r_{me}),
therefore both are equal and given by Eq.{22} and shown in Table.2.
8 The known value for electron's orbital angular
momentum (L_{o})^{ }[29] is 1.054x10^{34} kg.m^{2}s^{1}.
While the value obtained from Table.2, parameters are 1.054572669x10^{34}
kg.m^{2}s^{1 }using r_{ee}.
9 Electron's magnetic moment m_{e} = 9.284770119x10^{24} j/T obtained from
multiplication of Bohr magneton (m_{B}) [30] by 1.001159652193 as verified by experiments [22,
31], is obtained with the same value using any of Eq.{26}, thus Bohr magneton (m_{B}) gives correct magnetic moment value when using
correct parameters (v_{O} and r_{me}).
10 The electrostatic radius, r_{ee}
which determined v_{o}, F_{e},
r_{me}, r_{r},
and B_{1U}
is derived by Eq.{19} using (m_{e} and h), or Eq.{21}, or Eq.{25}, all of
which give the value of 0.528566407x10^{10}m, and given in Table.2.
11 The v_{o} is
derived either from Planck's relation Eq.{20} or the
radiated spectral line, given by Eq.{32}.
12 The known proton's radius (r_{p})
[22], is 1x10^{15} m, while from Eq.{9}, r_{p}=1.1060236231x10^{15 }m.
13 The excitation energy (E_{D}) is
relative to the ionisation energy^{ }[27, 28], for hydrogen atom the
ionisation energy, used in Eqs. {27},{28},{29} {30} and{31}
is 13.5981 eV^{ }[26].
14 For any atom if both the radiated wavelength l and the excitation velocity v_{D}
is known then the electron's natural orbital velocity v_{o}
(at natural orbital radius) can be obtained using Eqs.{20}
or {32}.
15 With reference to two points above, atomic spectral
lines can be reproduced as shown in Fig.8. While Table.3, shows the
reproduction sequential mechanism, and Table.4, summarised all of Table.3,
using only Eq.{31}, both tables gives the same
results.
16 Energy changes for charged particles therefore take
the following two forms:
(a) The normal
work done due to the displacement of the magnetic force from the normal orbital
radius (r_{me}) to the
excitation orbital radius (r_{n})
inside an atom, the energy of which is radiated, as shown in Fig.8.
(b)Starting
from the single particle microlevel, energy as given by Eq.{14}
and shown in Fig.6, electrons and protons can proceed to higher radial energy,
due to the produced external magnetic field (ExMF). The several
steps of energization may lead to acceleration mechanisms, such as those found
in the magnetopause boundary in the transition region [3, 32], both aurora oval
[6], and stable aurora red arc system (SARarc) [33], radiation belts [3], and
the ring current's [6] comprising charged particles.
17 From Fig.5:b.
The degree of stability for two nucleons depends on the equilibrium distance,
where attraction and repulsion forces are balanced, similar to forces between
two atoms [34]. Relative unbalance of the nuclear force magnitude causes the
vibration (or oscillation) motion of both nucleons (around 0.7 Fm, as shown in
Fig.5.b.). Similar to the molecule's vibration motion of the spring form,
associated with energy [35, 36]. Larger nucleus B_{TU}
magnitudes, give higher oscillations and lower nucleus nuclear stability, with
the associated energy and consequently leading to decay processes.
18 From point (15), the smallest excitation potential
of 1.982807168x10^{3 }eV can reproduce Pfund
series of 74599.21569Å in hydrogen atom. This therefore reveals the precision of
all natural phenomena mechanisms.
19 The 1922, silver atoms beam experiment carried out
by Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach, where the beam
split into two subbeams on the detecting plate by the action of the
electromagnetic field [29].
The experiment is reinterpreted as:
(a) While in motion, the silver atom NSMF
foreheads consist of both NSMF.
(b) In uniform field, each forward NSMF
detected the field as relatively equal magnitude of B.
Thus F = (B_{1}) (B_{2N}) r^{2}
c, gives net F = 0.
(c) In no uniform field, each of the NSMF
interacted as follow:
NSMF is
attracted upward by F = (+B_{1}) (B_{2U}) r^{2} c.
+NSMF is
repelled downward by +F = (+B_{1}) (+B_{2U}) r^{2}
c.
Therefore the silver atoms formed split on the
detected glass.
20 The measured nuclear force between two protons
which is (45)^{2} times greater than the electric force [8], is reinterpreted as kinetic energy phase of great
accelerated nucleons.
21 The MIH open the door for several
new ideas in many fields.
22 Physical constant used, are:
q
= 1.60217733x10^{19} C.
m_{e} = 9.1093897x10^{31} kg.
m_{p} = 1.6726231x10^{27} kg.
h = 6.6260755x10^{34} J.s [12].
e_{O}_{ }=
8.854223x10^{12} C^{2}.N^{1}.m^{2} [37].
Acknowledgement
My gratitude to my sister Sophya and her husband Abubakar Mohamad and children for their hospitality. The Chairman of
Physics Department, University of Nairobi, Prof. B.O. Kola for providing the
scientific umbrella, and Dr John Buers Awuor and Dr Lino Gwaki in the Physics Department without whom this work
could not have taken the present form. Late Leader Yousif Kuwa Makki, for his
moral supports, The late Dr. Tajudeen AbdulRaheem, the stuff of Nuba Relief
Rehabilitation and Development Organization (NRRDO), particularly Mr Ali Abdulrahman , Amar Amon and Jacob Idriss.
Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Mahamad, Halima, Hukmalla,
Arafa, Asha, Ahmad and Esmaeil. Finally, Dr Ali Khogali,
Prof.John O. Owino, Dr C. Oludha, Dr P. Baki, ShiekhEldien Mousa, Katoo T. Nzivo, Chiromo Library Stuff, Kenya National Library and
University of Makerery Library (Uganda).
7:0
Glossaries
B_{1}: Magnetic field
B_{1U}: Nucleus spinning magnetic field (NSMF)
B_{2}: The CMF
B_{2e}: Electron's CMF.
B_{2e}: Orbital electron’ CMF
B_{2p}: Proton's CMF.
B_{T}: Total Magnetic Field.
B_{Tp}: Proton's total magnetic field.
CMF: Circular
magnetic field.
d_{K} (d_{X}
= d_{Y} + d_{Z}):
Energization distance travels by magnetic force.
ExMF: External Magnetic Field.
F_{C}: Centripetal force.
F_{e}: Electrostatic force.
F_{m}: Magnetic force.
f_{ps}: Proton's Spinning frequency.
h: Planck's constant.
K: Kinetic
energy of charged particles.
L_{o}: Electron's orbital angular momentum.
m_{e}: Electron's mass.
MIH: Magnetic
Interaction Hypothesis.
NSMF: Nucleus
spinning magnetic field.
PSMF: Proton's
Spinning Magnetic Field.
r_{B}: Bohr radius.
r_{ee}: Electron's electrostatic atomic radius.
r_{m}: Magnetic radius of gyration.
r_{me}: Electron's magnetic radius (equivalent of Bohr
radius).
r_{n}: Excitation orbital radius.
r_{r}: SMF radius.
SMF: Spinning
magnetic field.
SMF_{CA}: Attractive spinning magnetic force.
v_{c}: Charged particles velocity.
v_{o}: Electron's natural orbital velocity around the
nucleus.
v_{n} = v_{D} + v_{O}: The excited radial velocity.
e_{O}: Permittivity of the free space.
q : Angle between two fields at interaction moment.
l: Wavelength.
m_{B}: Bohr magneton.
m_{e}: Atomic electron magnetic moment related to atom
stability.
w_{p}: Proton's angular frequency.
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