Home Page





By: Mahmoud E. Yousif


C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi

P.O.Box 30197




Several mechanisms were developed from the Magnetic Interaction hypothesis (MIH) and the related Universal Energies (UE) of captured charged particles produced by External Magnetic Field (ExMF), using rotating low magnetic fields (RLMF) operated from a solenoid. It is the ExMF that leads to energization of these particles. Electromotive force (e.m.f) can be generated across a conductor terminal nearby or directly influenced by several turns of a rotating ExMF.

If a RLMF is produced to penetrate bismuth in a mechanism (as suggested), then the produced ExMF interacts with the bismuth, resulting in continuous, enormous and momentary force, or ExMF force, to propel the mechanism. These mechanisms are extended to apply to the propulsion of several systems among them two flying objects (FO).



Continued efforts have been made to harness nature for human requirements, particularly in the energy sector. At present the required energy is that which could be manipulated using particles from the Sun or other Stars as classified by Nikolai Kardashev [1].


The new approach in fundamental physics as introduced by The Magnetic Interaction Hypothesis (MIH) [2] and The Spinning Magnetic Force (SMF) [3] that leads to a process for producing external magnetic field (ExMF) which is shown in my Universal Energies (UE) document [4] is further enhanced by the introduction of the Elements of Magnetic Lines of Force (EMLF) [5]. As a result this added refinement has led to an entirely new hypothesis regarding energy transformation and possibly a propulsion system that may propel flying objects (FO).


The production of ExMF outside an atom has already been suggested [6] as well as its implementation in the propulsion of FO [7]. In this respect it is the aim of this paper to propose on a theoretical basis a propelling method for flying objects which utilizes the production of ExMF. Therefore, in this paper is presented a general study of flying objects which have attached mechanisms that utilize ExMF - such as small electric generators capable of providing the necessary electric currents to these FOs and general usage, as well as new methods for propelling ground systems (vehicles).


This work suggests in Chapter 2:0 a method for capturing and energization of charged particles as well as the production of the necessary ExMF [4]. This work also proposes for the sustainability of that energy production a number of purposely designed machines. In chapter 3:0 both the process of obtaining charged particles (of electrons and protons) and the processes of obtaining the required rotating low magnetic fields (RLMF) are elaborated.

In Chapter 4:0 is given an example for generating electricity using ExMF, while Chapter 5:0 shows the principle translational force to be obtained from the interaction of external magnetic fields with diamagnetic materials. Chapter 6:0 investigates the operational background of an ExMF-propulsion system (ExMF-PS) and its associated provision of charged particles. Differences are explained between the translation force and propulsion force for the flying objects, and the concept of ExMF propulsion force, which is a continuous, enormous and momentary force, is presented. Chapter 7:0 then explains the mechanisms and forces involved in flying objects; forces such as ExMF levitation force (FExL) or ascending force (FExA), ExMF driving force (FExD), ExMF stability force (FExS), ExMF brake force (FExB) and the ExMF resulted force (FExR). Hypothetical examples of ExMF driving force resulted from an interaction between ExMF with bismuth is also given. Chapter 8:0 gives an example for production of ExMF and energization of electrons. Finally chapter 9:0 presents the hypothetical operational characteristics of the External Magnetic Field Propulsion System (ExMF-PS).

Since the ExMF-PS mechanism is based on a somewhat 'different' and unique concept of energy transformation, with a technique that primarily utilizes ambient or interstellar charged particles (electrons, protons and positrons) to produce its ExMF, as long as this propelling force is continuous and linked with propellant (of said ambient or interstellar charged particles), then propulsion will persist continually, and require it to carry no fuel-load of propellant mass. That means that the ExMF-PS craft could attain any required maximum transit speed physically and momentarily, simply by ionizing the required electrons from the ambient air, solar wind, interstellar fields (or from the controlled injection of electrons that can also be provided from within the craft by the same mechanism in back-up situations), making such craft suitable for both earthly transportations and space travel [8]. Indeed, suggestions will then be included as to how the ExMF-PS mechanism can in turn overcome all perceived difficulties presented by Marc G. Millis of NASA [9], for space propellants which so far approximate concepts such as the utilization of magnetic fields to provide solar wind sails in order to propel spacecraft [10].

It is then suggested how the ExMF-PS can form a theoretical base for the Searl Effect Generator (SEG) [11] and the Magnetic-Gravity Effects [12] as an inverse-gravity device, further modified by the Roschin Godin Searl Generator (M-RG-Searl-G) [13] which also provides a practical method for generating abundant amounts of electricity.




Fig.1, shows the capturing and energization machines. By operating the electric motors 2 and 12 the solenoid 13 rotates while producing a rotating low magnetic field (RLMF) 14, electromagnetic radiation 15 ionizes electrons that interact with the RLMF to produce an intense external magnetic field (ExMF) 16, as expressed in my The Universal Energies document [4]



Where, is the previous magnetic field (starting with original field B1) in Tesla, c is speed of light in m.s-1, l is the effective length of the magnetic lines of force (along which charged particles gyrates) in meters, q is the elementary charge in Coulomb, nm is the number of charged particles along one meter length, m is the mass of charged particles in kg, vc is velocity of captured charged particle in m.s-1, γps is the relative magnitudes of the primary and secondary ExMF in the final production of ExMF [4], with the value108 being the number of lines of force in m2 (equivalent to one Tesla) that could produce one volt [5] and the produced BEI is in Tesla.


With respect to Fig.1 in the ‘Elements of Magnetic Lines of Force’ [5], the distance D between any two magnetic lines of force will determine the charged particle's penetration capability towards the deeper lines. The cross-section of lines of forces in any circumference is given by



Where, NS is the number of lines of force along any cross-sectional side of the bundle, D is the distance between two lines of force [5], and NC is the number of lines in circumferential layers.


From Eq.{2}, the capability of the RLMF in capturing charged particles is divided into three regional groups: the outer most of which are of fewer lines but capture most charged particles, followed by the central lines, while the most inner are the greatest number of lines each capturing the least amount of particles.


In a region of rotating magnetic lines of force with field intensity of one Tesla, the relative percentage of magnetic lines of force in the 1st group (Nc1) is:



The relative percentage for the 2nd group (Nc1) is



The relative percentage for the 3rd group (Nc3) is


The amount of charged particles (nm) captured along one meter of line of force by the 1st 2nd and 3rd groups are thought to be nm1 = 80%, nm2 = 15% and nm3 = 5% of the total captured amount; therefore, produced ExMF shown in Graph.1, is given by:


Gyrating charged particles shown in Fig.1, while building intense ExMF 16 and given by Eq.{6} will have very small radius producing high excitation [4], leading to an emission of synchrotron radiation, the wavelength of which depends on gyrating radius [14].



The building up of ExMF given by Eq.{6}, the macro-level of kinetic energy K of charged particles derived from micro-level [4], it is given by:



Where, BEI is the rotating magnetic field in Tesla, B2 is the circular magnetic field of charged particle (CMF) in Tesla, rm is the magnetic radius of CMF in meter,  is the angle between the two fields BEI and B2 (CMF) at interaction moment, dK (dX = dY + dZ) is three dimension distance traveled by the magnetic line of force in meters.



Since the three dimension distance dK traveled by the magnetic field BEI is covered in a time t, therefore it is postulated that, the three dimension distance dK is given by



Where, vx is the x direction velocity in m.s-1, vy is the y direction velocity in m.s-1, vz is z direction velocity in m.s-1, t is the time in second.



Substituting Eq.{6} with BEI in Eq.{9}, therefore the change of energy Ki is given by:



Where, the kinetic energy K is in Joules.


Levels of energy built up given by Eq.{10} and shown in Figs.1, gained by gyrating charged particles, may be approximately computed as measured elsewhere [4], hence:


Where, K1, K2 …… Kn are energizations executed at each stage, e = ei where ei is the error of continuity approximation at step i, and the total approximate energy acquired or gained by the charged particle in the system KTS (shown in Graph.1) is in Joules.



Charged particles energized to value KTS given by Eq.{11}, will radiate synchrotron radiation [14], the quanta of radiated energy is known as:



Where, f is the radiated frequency in Hz, λ is the radiated wavelength in meters, h is Plank constant in J.s-1, c is the speed of light in m.s-1 and the radiated synchrotron energy EC is in Joules.


Systems shown in Figs.1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 operate electric motors to generate RLMF which in turn produces ExMF whenever interaction is made with charged particles, thus energizing these particles to different values of K eV, M eV, G eV or T eV (as shown in Graph.1).

If electric motors (2-12), (2-12), (10-16) and (15-20) in Figs.1, 4, 5, 6 respectively, and (6-9), (7-10) and (7-10) in Figs. 7, 8 and 9 respectively, which generates RLMF are stopped, the energization process stops and increments in ExMF production also stops; as a result energies built up in the electrons and protons are depleted through the emissions of synchrotron radiation, as given by Eq.(12), and therefore the maximum period for an energized particle to continue producing the required magnitude of ExMF in order to sustain the system, is  given by:


Where, KTS is energy of the charged particle in Joules, KM is the minimum required energy (to sustain ExMF operating the system) in Joules, EC is quanta of radiated synchrotron energy, and the sustainability period TS is in seconds. Additionally, while TS indicating the maximum period during which RLMF could be stopped, Eq.{13} also gives the maximum period that charged particles are able to radiate emissions (or aurora light).





As electrons (and protons or sometimes both) provide the basis for operating these systems mention should be made as to how these charged particles can be generated. There are four methods to obtain these electrons (and protons), these are:

(a)    Space particles, which are divided into two groups:

I-                   Magnetosphere charged particles, mostly from the sun and other stars.

II-                Inter-planetary, inter-stellar or inter-Galactic charged particles.

(b)   Injection of charged particles from internal surfaces of an object, where they emerge externally - as demonstrated by Faraday in ice-pail experiment [15, 16].

(c)    Accumulated charged particles using Van de Graff generation, and then transferring them externally by the above method.

(d)   Ionization of air constituent, using electromagnetic radiation with wavelength near ultra-violet radiation 4x103 - 2x103 Å (7.5x1014 – 1.5x1015 Hz) 4.969x10-19 – 9.939x10-19 J (3.102 - 6.203 eV) to obtain required electrons.



The solenoids shown in Figs. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9 are fixed on shafts of the second electric motor, when the motor is switched into an electric current (from a battery or electric generator), RLMF is produced. Rotational or movable three dimension distances (dK) that represents the RLMF movements. This dK is related to the arm radius (rc = rx + ry + ry) of the solenoids and the speeds (in frequency fc = fx + fy + fz) for the motors, since v/rc = 2πfc = d/rc therefore, dK is given by:



Where dx is the distance rotated in x direction, dy is the distance rotated in y direction, dz is the distance rotated in z direction, rcx is the radius rotated by the solenoid in the x direction, rcy is the radius rotated by the solenoid in the y direction and rcz is the radius rotate by the solenoid in the z direction. The RLMF produced by the solenoid as the B1 in x direction given by:



Where, n is the turning density of lines (or N/l), I is the current in amperes.

Substituting rc in Eq.(15) with rc from Eq.{14}, therefore RLMF (B1) is given by




A simplified electricity generator is shown in Fig. 4, composed of solenoid 13 fixed onto electric motor 12. When the system is switched on by battery 3, the RLMF 14 rotates, interacts with electrons (ionized by ionizer 15), thus producing ExMF 16, leading to the energization of the electrons [4]. Since the produced ExMF 16 rotates with the motor 12, it cuts two types of conductors 19 which each have N number of turns, thus inducing electromotive force 20 across conductors 19, with the value expressed by:


Where, Φ is flux density in Weber, N is number of wire turns, t is time in second, BEI is in Tesla, with the value108 being the number of lines of force in m2 (equivalent to one Tesla) that could produce one volt [5], l is the length of the conductor cut by the rotating ExMF, vm is the velocity of ExMF (or the speed of the motor) and the e.m.f. ξ is in volts (V).

Since different magnitudes of BEI are producible, therefore any amount of ξ can be produced, hence if this system is connected to a load, electric current will flow across it. This work forms a theoretical basis for Searl's SEG [11, 12] with certain modifications [13].



The magnetic force, (where magnetic moment) which acts on diamagnetic materials [17] produces a force given by:

Where, VD is the interaction volume of diamagnetic material in m3,  is the susceptibility of the diamagnetic material,  is permeability of free space, and B is the applied magnetic field.

Measurement of negative susceptibility of diamagnetic material [18], is carried out using the translational force (FT) method [19] given by:

Where,  is the susceptibility of the diamagnetic material,  is the susceptibility of material adjacent to the diamagnetic surface (i.e. the air),  is the field gradient in amp2/meters3, and the translational force (FT) is in Newtons.





That the translational force given by Eq.(19) is momentary and enormous was demonstrated by P. Kapitza at Cambridge University, when he immersed a 3 mm diameter glass rod in liquid oxygen in a Dewar vacuum flask, and upon subjecting it to magnetic field of 30 Tesla (300000 gauss) the glass rod was ejected momentarily to height of 7-8 meters [15, 20].


It should be pointed out that several materials are diamagnetic, graphite and bismuth especially being the strongest effected. All repel and are repelled by a strong magnetic field [15, 21], due to their negative susceptibility [18] which is a measure of the translational force resulting from imposing magnetic field on that material [19]. And even though materials like wood and plastic expel only a very small portion (0.00001%) of an applied magnetic field [22] these characteristics have nonetheless, in diamagnetic studies, explained why such materials and even several living tissues samples can be made to levitate within a strong magnetic field [23].

The repulsion of the diamagnetic atom on a micro scale is shown in Fig.2, while Fig.3 shows the displacement of a diamagnetic material due to the translational force.

Levitation is used in the SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETICALLY LEVITATED VEHICLE (MAGLEV) [24], and intended by NASA in magnetic levitation (or maglev) used for launching and lifting of vehicles for orbit [25] aimed to produce high acceleration and cruising speed [26].



The translational force (FT) given by Eq.(19), can be produced when ExMF interacts with diamagnetic material, the ExMF given by Eq.{6} is produced by capturing charged particles through a RLMF, while under energization processes [4], as shown in Fig.1.

To operate such a system, electrons (or protons) are required.  This could be obtained from one of four sources mentioned in section 3:1. In 3:1-d ultra-violet radiation is obtained from a ionizer shown by 15 in both Figs 1 and Fig.4, by 18 in Fig.5, by 23 in Fig.6 and 5 in Figs. 8 and 9, while Fig. 7 used bigger ionizer mechanism fixed on portholes 5, these ionizers ionized air constituent for required electrons.




The translational force produced mentioned above by Kapitza [15, 20] and given by Eq.(19) is momentary and tremendous but not continuous. If the glass rod, the vacuum flask, and the subjected magnetic field of 30 Tesla are all arranged to be linked mechanically together, the resultant force will agitate the glass rod (like bringing together two magnets of same polarity). 

But if both the glass volume is increased and the applied magnetic field is increased, there results an ExMF force (FEx) which moves the whole system vertically, because the glass rod being diamagnetic will behave like a magnet [27], and interacts magnetically [2]. Since the resulting FEx requires the application of an enormous, momentary, and continuously linked ExMF the concept of an ExMF propulsion system (ExMF-PS) is defined as the propulsion caused by repulsive forces resulting from the interaction of continual ExMF upon the volume of the diamagnetic material - so that the material produces a strong magnetic field to oppose and repel the ExMF.


Fig.5, show the nature and production of FEx, where the driving machine consists of an electric motor 10, a rotor spindle 11 connected with cross bar (or bars) 14 to which a motor 15 with solenoid 16 is fixed at each end of the bar. A plate of Bismuth 2 (a diamagnetic material with highest susceptibility [28]) is attached at the front, whereby the surface area of the bismuth is one square meter and it is greater than the circles 20, formed by the RLMF produced by rotation of both solenoids on it as shown in Fig.5-C.

The diamagnetic materials expel only a portion of the ExMF [22], therefore, the RLMF produced by the solenoid continually emerging from the bismuth surface as shown in Figs.5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, forms a circular path, shown by example 20 in Fig.5.C.

Electrons ionized by 18 will be captured by the RLMF, so that an intense ExMF will be produced as expressed in Eq.{6}, while electrons will be energized to value given by Eq.{11}, and shown in Graph.2.



Interaction of magnetic fields with a diamagnetic element on a micro-level is shown in Figs.2, while interaction on a macro-level is shown in Fig.3; therefore in Fig.5 the produced ExMF 19 interacts with the Bismuth 2 producing the ExMF operational force (FExO) 22, this force falls on the bismuth plate's magnetic-volume, moving the roller 8 of the machine in direction 23.

With regard to Eq.(19), the produced ExMF operational force (FExO) is given by:

Where,  is the susceptibility of the bismuth,  is the susceptibility of the air between the diamagnetic material and the produced ExMF, VD is the volume of the bismuth upon which ExMF falls in m3, l is the length of the produced ExMF (or the vertical field gradient) and the produced ExMF operational force (FExO) is in Newtons.




Two types of flying objects (FO) are described in this paper; the one with the cylindrical shape, named Mothership Jedia (M-Jedia) shown in Fig.7, while the other is a saucer of an oval shape named Ski Kush (S-Kush) shown in Figs.8.

Both FOs consist of an external body made of bismuth 1 acting as a propellant and internal body 2 made of ferromagnetic material to carry the payloads of occupants and instruments and serves to divert the intense (and potentially harmful) ExMF from the interior. Both bodies are connected with a support 3. As shown in fig.7, the FOs contain sets of electric motors 6-9, 15-18-26, 33-36  operating sets of solenoids 10- 19, 27 and 37 that produce RLMF 11, 20 and 29. For fig.8 electric motors 7-10, 17-20 and 28-31 each operates sets of solenoids 11- 21 and 32 that produce RLMF 12 and 22. To ionize ambient air for electron production, an ionizer is fitted on portholes 5 of M-Jedia, while electromagnetic radiation emitter 5 is fitted atop S-Kush. These sets of ionizers produce the charged particles required for the FO's propulsion forces.




For both FOs to move from the ground and start flying, the propulsion mechanism must be used in accordance to the following requirements. First an ExMF ascending force (FExA) must be operated, to raise the FOs from the ground. At the desired altitude the FExA can be reduced to the degree that it balances with the local gravitational force (Fg), thus an ExMF levitation force (FExL) results which allows the FO to hover in the air some altitude above the ground level. At this altitude, the FO can then operate the ExMF driving force (FExD) for forward drive. Due to the size and shape of M-Jedia, an ExMF stability force (FExS) will be required to keep it balanced while in flight or while maneuvering into special inclined positions. Stoppage or reducing the speed of both FOs require the usage of the ExMF Brake force (FExB), which produces a force opposite to the main drive force. A combination of both FExA (FExL) and FExD will give various flight trajectory angles and velocities, and is given as the ExMF resultant force (FExR).



Force for both FOs is based on the combined production of the following forces:


1-      ExMF ascending force (FExA):

a-      For M-Jedia, RLMF 11 interacts with electrons 12 ionized by near ultra-violet radiator on each porthole 5, producing ExMF 13 which interacts with bismuth 1 producing FExA force 14, thereby ascending M-Jedia upwards.

b-      For S-Kush, RLMF 12 that interacts with electrons 13 ionized by electromagnetic radiation 5 produce ExMF 14 that interacts with bismuth 1 producing ExMF FExA force 16. Excessive (or leakage) ExMF 15 is diverted from internal space 6 by ferromagnetic shell 2.


In both FOs intense ExMF will be produced given by Eq.{6} on the external surface of the lower hull.

Interaction of the produced ExMF with the bismuth (hull) produces ExMF operational force (FExO), given by Eq.(20), but this force is lifting FO upwards, therefore it is the ascending force FExA. This force moving the FO upwards is given by:



Where, FExA is the ExMF ascending force in Newtons.


Substituting BEI in Eq.{21} with Eq.{6}, the ExMF FExA is given by:



Where, FExA is the ExMF ascending force in Newtons.



2-      ExMF Levitation force (FExL):

a-      For M-Jedia, RLMF 11 interacts with ionized electrons producing ExMF 13 which interacts with bismuth 1 producing FExA. This force is then made to balance with the local gravitational force (Fg), thus producing FExL, that levitates M-Jedia some altitude above the ground.

b-      For S-Kush, RLMF 11 interacts with ionized electrons externally producing ExMF 13 that interacts with bismuth 1 producing ExMF FExA. This force is then made to balance with the local gravitational force (Fg), thus producing FExL, that levitates S-Kush some altitude above the ground.


The gravitation force (Fg) [16] acting on any material is given by



Where, m is the mass in kg, g is the universal gravitational constant in N.m2/kg2, ρ is the density of the material in kg.m-3, VD is the volume of the material in m3, and the gravitational force (Fg) is in Newtons.

If the FExA given by Eq.{21}is produced in such way so as to balanced the gravitational force given by Eq.(23) at a specific altitude then the force is ExMF FExL,  which is given by:

Where, FExL is the ExMF levitation force in Newtons.


Substituting BEI in Eq.{24} with Eq.{6}, the ExMF FExL is given by:

Where, FExL is the ExMF levitation force in Newtons.  


3-      ExMF Driving force (FExD):

a-      For M-Jedia, RLMF 20 interacts externally with electrons 21 producing ExMF 22 that interacts with bismuth 1 producing ExMF FExD 23. Excessive (or leakage) ExMF 42 is diverted away by ferromagnetic material 2.

b-      For S-Kush, RLMF 22 interacts with electrons 23 producing ExMF 24 that interacts with bismuth 1 producing ExMF FExD 26. Excessive (or leakage) ExMF 25 is absorbed by ferromagnetic material 2.


As shown above, to forward drive M-Jedia and S-Kush, an intense ExMF is produced given by Eq.{6} on the external surface of the rear part of both FOs which are made from bismuth.

Interaction of produced ExMF with the bismuth, produces ExMF operational force (FExO), given by Eq.(20). Therefore substituting BEI in the Eq.{20}, with the right-hand side of Eq.{6}, the ExMF driving force (FExD),  is given by:


Where, FExD is the ExMF driving force in Newtons.  


4-      ExMF Stability force (FExS):

bismuth produces the ExMF (FExS) forces (represented by the eight vectors 32 in Fig.7-B).

Interaction of produced ExMF with the bismuth, produces ExMF (FExO), given by Eq.(20). Therefore substituting BEI in the Eq.{20}, with the right hand side of Eq.{6} the ExMF FExS  is given by:

Where, FExS is the ExMF stability force in Newtons.  

a-      For S-Kush, because its size is smaller, the stability force will need to result from the design and propulsion power.


5-      ExMF Brake force (FExB), as both FOs are propelled by enormous force, a special mechanism will be needed to reduce speed or stop them:

a-      For M-Jedia, RLMF interact with ionized electrons producing ExMF that could interact with bismuth 1 then produces ExMF FExB that can stop or reduce the speed of M-Jedia. Excessive (or leakage) ExMF is diverted by ferromagnetic material 2.

b-      For S-Kush, RLMF interacts with ionized electrons producing ExMF that interacts with bismuth 1 then produces ExMF FExB that can stop or reduced the speed of S-Kush. Excessive (or leakage) ExMF is absorbed by ferromagnetic material 2.


To stop or reduce the speed of both M-Jedia and S-Kush, an intense ExMF is produced given by Eq.{6} on the external surface of the front part of both objects which are made from bismuth.

Interaction of the produced ExMF with the bismuth, produces ExMF FExO, given by Eq.(20), therefore substituting BEI in the Eq.{20}, with the right hand side of Eq.{6} the ExMF brake force (FExB) is given by:


Where, FExB is the ExMF brake force in Newtons.


6-      ExMF Resulting Force (FExR):

a-      For Jedia, as shown in Fig.7, ascending force 14 lifts M-Jedia upwards while the driving force 23 moves M-Jedia forward; therefore the resultant force 24 gives the true trajectory of the M-Jedia.

b-      For S-Kush, as shown in Fig.8, ascending force 16 lifts S-Kush upwards while the driving force 26 moves S-Kush forward; therefore the resultant force 27 gives the true trajectory of the S-Kush.





In the following example it is intended to give an estimated force and power of the ExMF-PS for the machines and flying objects shown in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 when under operation, providing the following parameters are followed.

The magnetic field B1 = 5x10-7, 3.1x10-4 and 6.3x10-3 T, length of magnetic lines of force l = 3m, the relative magnitudes of the primary and secondary ExMF γps = 2 and the captured velocity vc = 400,000 m.s-1.

Radius of the rotating arms rc1 = 0.5 m, rc2 = 0.1 m (on which solenoids are fixed), motor frequency f1 = 30 Hz, f2 = 50 Hz, therefore from Eq. {14} rotating distance dD = 125.6 (d1 = 94.24 and d2 = 31.4) m rs-1.


Each curve by Graph 1, comprise of sequences of intense ExMF production, energization of electrons (Graph 2), and production of ExMF FExO , resulting from interaction of the bismuth with the intense ExMF are resulted.

Each sequence starts with specific RLMF (B1) which is related to a specific number of magnetic lines of force NA [5] (distributed into three groups Nc1, Nc2 and Nc3), while (for simplicity) number of ionized electrons nm1, nm2 and nm3 increases from 8x104, 1.5x104 and 5x103 to 8x1015, 1.5x1015 and 5x1014  in each sequence.

Graph 1, shows among other the instant production of both the ExMF and the ExMF FExO, it also shows the capability of sudden and enormous acceleration if used by M-Jedia or S-Kush in Figs.7 and 8 respectively.

The magnitudes of the forces in the Graph 1, results from one square meter of the bismuth shell of either M-Jedia or S-Kush, and the force is multiplied by the Force working area (upon which ExMF interacts).

Some data are of course an approximation, since electrons gyrating around magnetic lines of force could stray from the system into the surrounding medium, or even be lost when they reach the stage of electron fusion at high states of excitation [4].



At present a mission to Mars may last 1000-days, so how long dose it takes M-Jedia to reach Mars?

The enormous produced force shown in Graph 1, allows for propulsion of different size of masses such as the M-Jedia shown in Fig.7.

The length of M-Jedia could exceed one hundred (100) meters with a radius of twelve and half (12.5) meters.

Jedia Spaceship can carry twenty S-Kush shown in Fig.8 each of which weight twenty five tons. Therefore the total weight of M-Jedia five thousand (5,000) tons.

If the total force working area that propelled M-Jedia is 20 square meters, the produce ExMF is 108 and the produced Force is 1020 Newton (line 2 in Graph 1), therefore the total force produced by the working area is 2x1021 Newton.

Using Newton’s second law

Therefore the acceleration at which Jedia can leave the vicinity of the planet Earth towards Mars is 4x 1011 m.s-2.

If the time t = 100 seconds, therefore from the above acceleration the velocity = 4x104 km.s-1.

If produced ExMF =10, therefore the total force= 2x1034, the velocity becomes 4x1023 km.s-1.

This can give some idea about space journey and overcoming the gravity issue.

But what about the barrier formed by Einstein?



According to Einstein, the relativistic mass resulted from the energy of fast moving body is increasing with rate related to its approach to the speed of light.

But our M-Jedia has an internal body with the occupants and the instruments (2 in Fig.7) that is isolated from the external environment by a vacuum (gas or liquid) and the escaped ExMF around 1% of produced ExMF (as in the example above) it could reach a value of 107 T, therefore the internal body is not in motion relatively to the external body of the bismuth (1 in

Fig.7), but the bismuth itself is engulf by both the ExMF at the back/sides, and internal escaped ExMF at the front, therefore the system in motion is the produced ExMF.

That, the escape ExMF at front pushes any object from the path of M-Jedia, while at that enormous speed it can be deflected from any heavy body such as Planets and Stars in a way similar to comets while rotating around the Sun.



The following are some of the characteristics thought to relate to the operation of ExMF-PS of both M-Jedia and S-Kush:

1-      The near to extreme ultra violet bright light emitting from portholes 5 in Fig.7, and by radiator 5 in Fig.8, is to ionize the surrounding air. It emits bright light with intensity similar to burning magnesium. In Fig.7 the number of portholes involved relates to the required amount of electrons.

2-      If the S-Kush in Fig.9, is hanging several meters above the ground by ExMF FExL, while the forward RLMF motors 17 and 20 are operating, at the same time the upper ionizer radiation is operating, an enormous amount of electrons will rush towards the RLMF and interact with it, thus causing a thunder-like sound. The ExMF FExD will simultaneously move the object forward at enormous speed.

3-      Electrons gyrating around the RLMF while producing ExMF during ascending or forward driving propulsion will either radiate synchrotron radiation (like an aurora) or look like smoke haze at daytime. If electric current to the solenoids producing the RLMF are stopped, so that gyrating electrons are ejected from the system they will look like emitted smoke.

4-      Energization of charged particles to higher energies, producing the desired ExMF, could be maintained at a specific magnitude by the RLMF while it radiates part of the energy in the form of synchrotron radiation for intermittent periods determined by Eq.{13}. It should be further noted that no sound would be heard from the object, while hanging by the ExMF FExL forces, given by Eq.{25}.

5-      Energies acquired by charged particles are dissipated through two ways:

a.       Production of ExMF [4].

b.      Electromagnetic radiation [14] that is part of the above.

6- The mechanism through which threads of charged particles rotate while bound to the intense ExMF could cause various interesting side effects worthy of further research, depending on the type of the materials effected (ferromagnetic, diamagnetic or paramagnetic), especially in different combinations of propulsion systems used. All materials can give different phenomena.  Some of these phenomena are:

a. As diamagnetic material, water is agitated by magnetic field [29] (several living tissue materials like frogs and strawberries for instance were levitated and filmed [23]). Since water and chlorophyll constitutes high percentages in the constituency of trees, it follows that within the presence of intense rotating ExMF, when the FOs are propelled by the ascending or forward drive force, tree branches would be prone to twist and even break.

b. Like water, wheat and maize are diamagnetic materials. During ascending or levitation stage, the rotating ExMF occurring near these crops would move them in the direction determined by the craft's RLMF. Such as is illustrated in Figs.7-C where the cross section of the rotating ExMF across the line B-B shows three stripes 43 formed by the stability ExMF 31, while the circles 44 and 45 are formed by the ascending rotating ExMF 13 and the smaller circles 46 are also formed by ExMF 13 while motor 6 A is stopped. Therefore, these factors suggest how crops can become twisted and break under the pressure of this field's force. The complexities of resulting shapes are determined by several factors, such as the combinations of various ascending, stability and driving forces used.

c.       As water is agitated by low magnetic field [29] then with intense ExMF, as shown in Graph.1, water could look as if it’s boiling.

7- When the system is under continuous rotation, and higher energization is obtained producing maximum ExMF, then one of the following particle fusion mechanisms [4] would take place as follows:

a- As ExMF is produced by gyrating electrons at intense ExMF production electrons fusion occurs [4], and thread like spider’s web [30], are ejected from the flying object. The length of which is determined by the total length l along which electrons gyrate as given by Eq.{6}.

b- As gyrating protons produce ExMF, at specific intense ExMF protons fusion occurs [4], and enormous energy and ExMF are released.

8- If solenoid current in Eq.{16} is increased. The emerged RLMF intensity is changed. Thus the bulk of gyrating charged particles moves away from the bismuth surface.

9- When intense ExMF is produced, the captured charged particles will start to radiate intense synchrotron radiation similar to aurora [14]. Since its wavelength is determined by gyrating radius, therefore radiated colors produced will be relative to the produced ExMF intensity, in accordance to the magnitude of the ExMF FExA or FExD and the velocity of the flying object.

10- From the above, since operational force given by Eq.{26} is proportional to produced ExMF, therefore, the radiated color represents the magnitude of driving force.

11- As shown in Figs.7, 8 & 9, both M-Jedia and S-Kush consist of two shells, the external diamagnetic material which interacts with the propellant, and the internal shell consisting of a ferromagnetic material acting as magnetic shield or keeper, so as to reduce the effects of excess ExMF upon the occupants and instruments, Fig.7. C.

12- For S-Kush shown in Figs.8 & 9 the two shells 1 and 2 are linked with beams and axles 3 that could be locked. If the lock is released and since the disk edges are similar therefore, any excessive ExMF could interact with magnetic fields 28 produced by solenoids 27 in Fig.9 leading to the spinning of the external diamagnetic body.  In Fig.9-B, the internal body 2 is kept fixed while the external body 1 rotates 32 from position A to F, shown by red arrows, while rotation of ExMF 30 is shown by brown arrows 31. 

13-  The ability of rotating and intense ExMF to produce electricity is shown in Fig.4, it gives a hint to the amount of forward or reverse current that could be produced on any national grid (near electricity pylons), if M-Jedia of Fig.7, or S-Kush of Fig.8, flow with ExMF over such grid cables or pylons.

14- Also related to above, the rotating ExMF can induce back current (back-emf) in the wiring or coil of an electric car neutralizing the battery current, thus can cause the stalling of the petrol engine cars.

15- While using external electrons to produce ExMF, an enormous amount of heat is generated, particularly at the surface of the diamagnetic material, duly an odor (or metallic smell) may result, from above chemical reaction.

16- Saucer shaped objects (like S-Kush in Figs. 8 & 9) when falling from high altitude (as if powerless), fall down in a leaf type motion due to their aerodynamic structures. But if this action is interrupted, at any altitude, with the switching in of the ascending (or driving) motors and the ionizers, then an ExMF would be instantly produced (as shown in Graph.1) and with it consequently an instant ExMF- FExA or FExD force, so that the object could be made to stop motionless very quickly, or the object could even move vertically upward, or forward, almost as instantly. Indeed, this force allows the object to perform great acceleration and different maneuverability.

17- Defects in radio receiver power supply (sometimes caused by-pass capacitors) cause the well-known hum sound, and this is the audible 50/60 Hz.s-1 due to the ± rotational cycle of electric current. And likewise, because M-Jedia and S-Kush (shown in Figs. 7 & 8) use internal motors to produce their RLMF, and because these motors operate around ±3000 r.p.m-1 (or ±50 Hz), therefore if the motor is operating a hum will be heard when the object operates its motor while flying in the vicinity.

18- Various whistling sounds heard and detected at the aurora zone and recorded at Saturn boundaries by Cassini, could either be caused by low frequency electromagnetic wave or lengthy gyrating electrons touching each other. Such sounds will also be heard while M-Jedia or S-Kush is moving in the vicinity.

19- In addition of propelling flying objects, such as discs, ovals and cylinders, of various shapes and sizes, the ExMF-PS can be used to propel vehicles, drive rail trains, propel ships and propel modified airplanes.

20- The Searl Effect Generator (SEG) that so often disappeared while on early tests [11] represents an uncontrollable chain of ExMF build up that propels the SEG into upper atmosphere. While a modified version [13] based on the ExMF-Propulsion can produce any amount of e.m.f. that could be used as main source of energy and in the flying objects.

21- As seen the characteristics explained above, explains in the same time most of the phenomena reported by witness of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) [31, 32, 33, 34].

22- The two layers of M-Jedia can absorb all gamma-rays, high-energy protons and cosmic rays from solar flares or from far Stars and Galaxies.

22- The link between ExMF-PS and the Heim's rapdrive [35] is that both of them utilized high magnetic field to cause relative shift in space within a limit time.

23- This work may help in answering many of space questions [36]



Special gratitude to Mr. Paul E Potter, for kindly reviewing the manuscript and positive touches in the figures and criticisms reflected in this work. Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Halima, Hukmala, Asha, Arfa, Ahmad, Esmaiel, Safya and her husband Abubakar Mohammad,. The Late Prof. B.O. Kola, and Dr John Buers Awuor, Dr Lino Gwaki, Dr P. Baki, Prof, Bernard O. Aduda, Prof. J. Otieno Malo and staff of Physics Department University of Nairobi. Dr Ali Khogali, Late Yousif Kuwa Makki, Dr. Garang Ring Lual, Mr. Kazimiro Rudolf Jocondo, Ahmad Alhag Adam, Sediq A. Musabal, and Qamrul Haider.


11:00 Glossaries

BEI: Intense produced ExMF.

D: Distance between two magnetic lines of force.

dK : Three dimensions rotations (dX = dY + dZ).

EC: Radiated synchrotron energy.

e.m.f: Electromotive force.

EMLF: the Elements of Magnetic Lines of Force.

ExMF: External Magnetic Field.

ExMF-PS: External Magnetic Field Propulsion System.

FEx : ExMF force.

FExA: ExMF ascending force.

FExB: ExMF Brake force.

FExD: ExMF Driving force.

FExL: ExMF Levitation force.

FExO: the ExMF operational force.

FExR: ExMF Resulting Force.

FExS: ExMF Stability force.

Fg: local gravitational force.

FO: flying objects.

FT: Translational force.

KM: Minimum required energy (to sustain ExMF operating the system).

KTS: Energy of the charged particle.

MIH: The magnetic interaction hypothesis.

NC: Number of magnetic Lines of force in circumferential layers.

Nc1: Relative percentage of magnetic lines of force in the 1st group (outer).

Nc1: Relative percentage of magnetic lines of force in the 2nd group (central).

Nc3: Relative percentage of magnetic lines of force in the 3rd group (inner).

nm: Number of charged particles along one meter length.

nm1: 80% of charged particles captured along one meter of line of force by the 1st groups.

nm2: 15% of charged particles captured along one meter of line of force by the 2nd groups.

nm3: 5% of charged particles captured along one meter of line of force by the 3rd groups.

NS: Number of magnetic lines of force along cross-sectional side of the bundle.

RLMF: rotating low magnetic fields.

SEG: The Searl Effect Generator.

SMF: The Spinning Magnetic Force.

TS: Sustainability period is in seconds.

UE: Universal Energies.

γps : Relative magnitudes of the primary and secondary ExMF

: Susceptibility of material adjacent to the diamagnetic surface (i.e. the air).

: Susceptibility of the diamagnetic material.



1- Drake, Frank and Dava Sobel 1993 Is Any One Out There? Pocket Book, London, pp 101.

2- Yousif, Mahmoud E. “The Magnetic Interaction”, Modified version:


Fist published, 09-Oct-2003, at:


3- Yousif, Mahmoud E. The Spinning Magnetic Field, at: http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SMFc.pdf

http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MY-S.pdf  09-Oct-2003c.

4- Yousif, Mahmoud E. THE UNIVERSAL ENERGIES, at:


http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/Yousif.pdf  18-Jan-2004.

5- Yousif, Mahmoud E. ELEMETS OF THE MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE, at: http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/EMLF.pdf

http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MY-E.pdf 09-Oct-2003b.

6- Kapitza, P. 1967 Collected Papers of P. Kapitza (The Production of and Experiments in Strong Magnetic Field), Edited by D. Ter Hear, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

7- Ashpole, Edward 1995 THE UFO PHENOMENA, Headline Publishing, London.

8- Millis Marc G. Responsible Official http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/bpp/

9- Marc G. Millis, Breakthrough Propulsion Physics at :


10- Sligar, David What is Magnetic Field? http://www.geocities.com/dsligar.geo/mfield.html

11- Searl, J.R.R., Web site at: www.searleffect.com , 2002.

12- V. V. Roschin, S. M. Godin, the Experimental Research of the Magnetic-Gravity Effects. Full Size SEG tests, http:// www.searleffect.com/free/russianseg/russianseg.htm ).

13- Yousif, Mahmoud E., Modified Roschin-Godin-Searl Generator (M-RG-Searl-G), http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/New_Energy/M-RG-Searl-G.html

14- Yousif, Mahmoud E. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, Unpublished work.

15- Nightingale, E. 1958 Magnetism and Electricity, G. Bell and Sons Ltd, London, pp 10-11,48.

16- Trinklein, Frederick E.1990 Modern Physics, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., New York.

17- Jayawant B. V., 1981 Electromagnetic Levitation and Suspension Techniques, Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd., London.

18- Kitaigorodsky A. 1968 Introduction To Physics, Translated from Russian by O. Smith, Mir Publisher, Moscow.

19- Anderson, J.C. 1968 Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Spottiswood Ballanantyne and Co. Ltd, London.

20- Ramsey, William L., Clifford R. Phillips, Raymond A. Barckley and Frank M. Watenpaugh 1969 Modern Earth Science, Holt, Rinchart and Winston Inc., New York.

21- Simon, Martin and Andre Geim Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA , High Field Magnet Laboratory, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands


22- Faculty of Science of the University of Nijmegen HFML, http://www.hfml.kun.nl/froglev.html

23- Faculty of Science of the University of Nijmegen HFML,   http://www.hfml.kun.nl/levitation-movies.html

24- Railway Technical Research Institute, http://www.rtri.or.jp/rd/maglev/html/english/maglev_principle_E.html

25- Advanced Space Transportation Technology Summary, Magnetic Levitation


26- The Subcommittee on Railroads Hearing on Magnetic Levitation Transportation,


27- Eric Weisstein's World of Science    http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Diamagnetism.html

28- Emsley, John 1991, The Elements, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

29- Faculty of Science of the University of Nijmegen HFML, http://www.hfml.kun.nl/pices/Movies/water3.mpg

30- Spencer, John1991 The UFO Encyclopedia, Headline, London.

31- Jacques and Janine Vallee 1966 The UFO Enigma, Ballantine Books, New York.

32- Watts, Alan 1994 UFO QUEST (In Search of the Mystery Machines), Blandford, London.

33- Vallee, Jacques 1965 UFO’s IN SPACE: Anatomy of a Phenomenon, Ballantine Books, New York.

34- Vallee, Jacques 1990 CONFRONTATION, Ballantine Books, New York.

35-   Dröscher and Jochem Häuser on their paper “Guidelines for a space propulsion device based on Heim's quantum theory  http://www.newscientistspace.com/article/mg18925331.2001

36- THE REPORT OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE, 986 Pioneers in Space Frontier, Bantam Book, N.Y.

Published by: