Timeline of Major Human Progress

(Scientific, Technologies, Religious Manifestations and UFO Sightings)

Modernization and Humanity are Accelerated by Provision of Free Knowledge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. CD of 2000 and the UFOs sightings from various mentioned sources

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first working version of the invention is used here.

o   Invention

·       Science

·       Religion






Invention or Historical development



UFO Historical Sighting


Paleolithic Era

o      Indeterminate: Language

o      2.4 mya: Olduwan - struck stone tools, in East Africa

o      1.65 mya: Acheulean - struck and reworked stone tools, in Kenya

o      1.4 mya: Knife in Ethiopia

o      1 mya: Controlled fire and sterilization of food and water (cooking) in East Africa

o      500 tya: Shelter construction [2]

o      100-500 tya: Clothing

o      400 tya: Pigments in Zambia [3]

o      400 tya: Spears in Germany [4]

o      200 tya: Burial in Africa

o      100 tya: Lithic blades in Africa and the Near East

o      60 tya: Ships probably used by settlers of New Guinea

o      50 tya: Flute in Slovenia

o      50 tya: Bow in Tunisia [5] [6]

o      43 tya: Mining in Swaziland and Hungary

o      37 tya: Tally sticks in Swaziland [7]

o      30 tya: Sewing needles

o      26 tya: Ceramics in Moravia

o      25 tya: Atlatl in Northwest Africa [8]

o      17 tya: twisted Rope (probably much earlier)

o      12 tya: Basket weaving

o      12 tya: Pottery in Japan

























10th millennium BC


o      Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

o      Alcoholic beverages in the Fertile Crescent

o      Adobe in the Near East

o      9500 BC: Granary in the Jordan Valley


9th millennium BC

o      8700 BC: Metalworking (copper pendant) in Iraq


8th millennium BC

o      Animal husbandry in the Near East

o      Plaster in Jericho


7th millennium BC


o      7000 BC: Surgery in Mehrgarh (Pakistan)[1]

o      7000 BC: Dental surgery in Mehrgarh[1]

o      7000 BC: Drill in Mehrgarh[1]

o      7000 BC: Bow drill in Mehrgarh

o      7000 BC: Dental drill in Mehrgarh[1]

o      6200 BC: Map in Çatalhöyük

o      Cloth woven from flax fiber


6th millennium BC

o      Irrigation in the Fertile Crescent

o      Ploughs in Mesopotamia (Iraq)



5th millennium BC

o      Beer and bread in Egypt

o      Wheel and axle combination in Mesopotamia


4th millennium BC


Sumer 3500–2334 BC

o      4000 BC: Canal in Mesopotamia

o      3800s BC: Engineered roadway in England

o      3500 BC: Plywood in Egypt

v  Sumer 3500–2334 BC

o      3500 BC: Writing in Sumer

o      3500 BC: Carts in Sumer

v  Ancient Egypt 3200–343 BC

v  Indus Valley and the Indian subcontinent 3200–1700 BC

Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.

Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.

o      3100 BC: Drainage in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan)

o      3000 BC: Sailing

o      Bronze: Susa

o      Silk in China

o      Cement in Egypt

o      River boats in Egypt

o      Noodle in China

v  Norte Chico 3000-1600 BC

Caral of the Norte Chico, the oldest known civilization in the Western Hemisphere.

Caral of the Norte Chico, the oldest known civilization in the Western Hemisphere.

o     A Sumerian (Erech) pictograph, dated about 3500 BC, shows a sledge equipped with wheels. The idea of wheeled transportation may have come from the use of logs for rollers, but the oldest known wheels were wooden disks consisting of three carved planks clamped together by transverse struts. (Ency. Brit.)

·          Hebrew AVRAHAM.

·          Judaism Jewish myth and legend.

·       Significance and characteristics of Judaism.

·       Judaism.


30th century

3rd millennium BC


o      2800 BC: Soap in Mesopotamia

o      2800 BC: Button in the Indus Valley Civilization

v  Elamite (Iran) (2700–539 BC)

o      2600 BC: Chariot in Mesopotamia

o      2600 BC: Artificial sewage system in the Indus Valley Civilization

o      2600 BC: Toilet in the Indus Valley Civilization

o      2560 BC: Pyramid in Egypt (Great Pyramid of Giza)

o      2500 BC: Flush toilet in the Indus Valley Civilization

o      2500 BC: Arch in Mohenjo-daro (Indus Valley Civilization)[2]

o      2400 BC: Shipyard in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization)

v  China 2200 BC–present

The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China

o      2000 BC: Currency

·       Hinduism.

v  Greece 2000–1450 BC

The "Saffron-gatherers": fresco found at Akrotiri on the island of Santorini.

The "Saffron-gatherers": fresco found at Akrotiri on the island of Santorini.

v  Olmec (New World) 1200–450 BC

o      Dagger in Near East

o      Sickle-sword in Sumer

o      Alphabet in Egypt

o      Candles in Egypt

o      Sledges in Scandinavia


2nd millennium BC


o      Bronze Age sword in Mesopotamia

o      Glass in Egypt

·          17th century BCVenus tablet of Ammisaduqa: first known Babylonian astronomical observations

o      Rubber in Mesoamerica

o      Spoked-wheel chariot: Indo-Iranians

o      Water clock in Egypt

o      Bells in China

o      1000s BC: Coins in China








1st millennium BC


v  Korea c. 900 BC [dubious — see talk page] – present

v  Etruscans and Ancient Rome 900BC-500AD

The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed.

The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed.

o      Catapult in China and Near East

o      South Pointing Chariot in China

o      Differential gear in China

o      Stupa in India

·       Old Iranian Zarathushtra, or Zarathustra.

·       Zoroaster's teachings.

·  Persia (Iran)(550 B.C -- 330 B.C)

Ruins of Persepolis, ancient ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empireý

Ruins of Persepolis

o      Blowgun in India[3]

o      Iron pellet in India[3]

·       Buddhism.

o      500s BC: Sugar in India

o      500s BC: Dental bridge in Etruria

o      500s BC: Kite in China

o      500s BC: Trebuchet in China

o      475 BC: Scythed Chariot: Ajatashatru of India

·        Confucianism.


·        Formation of the classical Confucian tradition.

o      400s BC: Plastic surgery: Sushruta of India

o      400s BC: Football: in China

·          360s BCEudoxus of Cnidus: first Greek planetary models

·          350s BCHeraclides: rotation of Earth:

o      350 BC: Water wheel in India[4]

o      350 BC: Watermill in India[4]

o      300s BC: Compass in China

o      300s BC: Screw: Archytas

·          3rd century BCEratosthenes: Measured the size of the earth, distance to the sun and to the moon.

·              Taoism.

·          Shinto.

o      200s BC: Crossbow in China

o      200s BC: Compound pulley: Archimedes

o      200s BC: Odometer: Archimedes?

o      150s BC: Clockwork (Antikythera mechanism


o      150s BC: Astrolabe: Hipparchus of Asia Minor

o      100s BC: Big-toe stirrup in India[5]

o      100s BC: Parchment in Pergamon

o      1st century BC: Glassblowing in Syria

o      1st century BC: Trip hammer in China

o      40 BC: Rolling-element bearing in Roman ship

o      Chaturaji in India

o      Chaturanga in India

o      Xiangqi in China

o      Baghdad Battery in Mesopotamia (Iraq)

o      Electric battery in Mesopotamia (Iraq)




































































1st century


·           The birth of Jesus Christ

·           JESUS b. c. 6 BC, Judaead. c. AD 30.



1st century


·           Roman Catholic History.

·          The emergence of Catholic Christianity.

·          The emergence of Roman Catholicism.

o      50: Mouldboard plough in Gaul


2nd century


o      100s: Aeolipile : Egypt by Hero of Alexandria

o      100s: Stern mounted rudder in China

o      105: Paper: Cai Lun in China

o      125: First water-powered armillary sphere by Zhang Heng in China

o      132: Rudimentary Seismometer: Zhang Heng in China


3rd century


o      200s: Wheelbarrow: Zhuge Liang in China

o      200s: Kongming lantern first Hot air balloon

o      200s: Horseshoes in Germany


4th century

o      300: Wootz steel in India

o      300s: Foot stirrup in China

o      300s: Toothpaste in Egypt


5th century

o      400s: Horse collar in China


6th century


o     Prophet Muhammad b. c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia] d. June 8, 632, Medina.

o      500s: Vaccination in China

o      500-1000: Spinning wheel in India[6]

o      589: Toilet paper in China


7th century



·                            Quran.

·                   The foundations of Buddhism.

o      673: Greek fire: Kallinikos of Heliopolis


8th century


o      700: Quill pen

o      700s: Brass astrolabe: Muhammad al-Fazari[7]

o      721-815: Alembic: Geber[8]

o      721-815: Distilled alcohol: Geber[8]

o      721-815: Distilled wine: Geber[8]

o      725: Clockwork escapement mechanism: Yi Xing of China











9th century


·          810s - Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan): beginning of chemistry

o      800-873: Valve: Banū Mūsā[9]

o      800-873: Float valve: Banū Mūsā[9]

o      800-873: Feedback controller: Banū Mūsā[9]

o      800-873: Automatic flute player: Banū Mūsā[10]

o      800-873: Programmable machine: Banū Mūsā[10]

o      810-887: Eye glasses: Abbas Ibn Firnas[11]

o      810-887: Watch: Abbas Ibn Firnas[11]

o      852: Parachute: Armen Firman

o      865-925: Hard soap: Al-Razi (Rhazes)[12]

o      875: Hang glider: Abbas Ibn Firnas

o      800s: Injection syringe: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili of Iraq[11]

o      800s: Quadrant in Iraq[13]

o      800s: Windmill in Persia[14]

o      800s: Kerosene in the Arab Empire[11]

o      800s: Gunpowder in China






















10th century


o      953: Fountain pen in Egypt[15]

o      984: Pound lock in China

o      994: Sextant: Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi[16]

o      900s: Solid rocket in China

o      900s: Banknote in China

o      Fore-and-aft rig in India[17]

o      Lateen in India[17]

o      Shogi in Japan

o      Porcelain in China

o      Woodblock printing in China

o      Prayer wheel: Tibet[18]

o      Shatranj in Persia

o      Paned window in the Arab Empire[19]

o      Street lamp in the Arab Empire[19]














11th century


·           1000s - Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen): beginning of the modern scientific method and modern optics, foundations of telescopic astronomy, invention of camera obscura and pinhole camera, discovery of principle of least time and first law of motion, general formula for integral calculus c. 1000: Pendulum: Ibn Yunus[20]

o      1000: Ligature: Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis)

o      1000: Forceps: Abu al-Qasim[21]

o      1000: Curette: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000: Retractor: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000: Scalpel: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000: Sound: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000: Surgical needle: Abu al-Qasim[23]

o      1000: Surgical catgut: Abu al-Qasim

o      1000: Surgical hook: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000: Surgical rod: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000: Surgical spoon: Abu al-Qasim[22]

o      1000-1048: Orthographical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[24]

o      1000-1048: Planisphere: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[24]

o      1000-1048: Laboratory flask: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[25]

o      1000-1048: Pycnometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[25]

o      1000-1048: Conical measure: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[26]

o      1011-1021: Parabolic mirror: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen)

o      1011-1021: Pinhole camera: Ibn al-Haytham[27]

o      1011-1021: Camera obscura: Ibn al-Haytham[27]

·          Sikhism History and background Religious and cultural origins.

o      1028-1087: Equatorium: Arzachel (Al-Zarqali)[28]

o      1028-1087: Saphaea: Arzachel

o      1038-1075: Noria with flywheel: Ibn Bassal of Al-Andalus[29]

o      1041: Movable type printing press: Bi Sheng in China

·           Eastern Orthodoxy.

o      1088: Chain drive: Su Song in China

o      1088: Mechanical clock: Su Song

o      1088: Clock tower: Su Song

o      1088: Magnetic compass descibed by Shen Kuo in China

o      1090: Mechanical belt drive in China

o      Mechanical astrolabe: Ibn Samh of Al-Andalus[30]

o      Glass mirror in Al-Andalus[11]











































12th century


o      c. 1100: Framed bead abacus in China

o      1100-1161: Tracheotomy: Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar)[23]

o      1119: Zhu Yu describes watertight hull compartments in China

o      1121: Steelyard: Al-Khazini[25]

o      1121: Hydrostatic balance: Al-Khazini[25]

o      1128: Cannon in China

o      1135-1200: Linear astrolabe: Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī[31]

o      1150: Perpetual motion machine: Bhaskara II[32]


13th century


o      1200: Combination lock: Al-Jazari[15]

o      1206: Elephant clock: Al-Jazari

o      1206: Weight-driven mechanical clock: Al-Jazari[15]

o      1206: Hand washing device: Al-Jazari

o      1206: Kitchen appliance: Al-Jazari

o      1206: Cam: Al-Jazari

o      1206: Camshaft: Al-Jazari[33]

o      1206: Crankshaft: Al-Jazari[15]

o      1206: Crank mechanism: Al-Jazari[34]

o      1206: Connecting rod: Al-Jazari[34]

o      1206: Segmental gear: Al-Jazari[35]

o      1206: Suction piston pump: Al-Jazari[36]

o      1206: Reciprocating piston engine: Al-Jazari[36]

o      1206: Double-acting engine: Al-Jazari[36]

o      1206: Humanoid robot: Al-Jazari[37]

o      1206: Programmable robot: Al-Jazari[37]

·         1220-1235 - Robert Grosseteste: rudimentals of the scientific method (see also: Roger Bacon)

o      1275: Torpedo: Hasan al-Rammah of Syria[38]

o      1297-1298: Wooden movable type printing: Wang Zhen of China

o      Condom in Italy

o      Sandpaper in China



























14th century


·         Before 1327 - William of Ockham: Occam's Razor

o      1350: Suspension bridges in Peru

o      Western chess in Italy

·        Anglican Communion History (Christianity in England).


15th century


o      Arquebus and Rifle in Europe

o      1441: Rain gauge: Jang Yeong-sil

o      1450s: Alphabetic movable type printing press: Johann Gutenberg

o      1451: Concave lens for eyeglasses: Nicholas of Cusa

·       Martin Luther b. Nov. 10, 1483, Eisleben, Saxony [Germany]d. Feb. 18, 1546.

·       Protestantism.

o      1490 - 1492: Globe "Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe" by German mapmaker Martin Behaim

o      1498: Toothbrush in China











16th century

o     c. 1500: Ball bearing: Leonardo Da Vinci

o     c. 1500: Scissors: Leonardo Da Vinci

o     1510: Pocket watch: Peter Henlein

o     1540: Ether: Valerius Cordus

·           1543 - Copernicus: heliocentrism

·           1543 - Vesalius: human anatomy

o              1551: Steam turbine: Taqi al-Din[39]

·           1552 - Michael Servetus: pulmonary circulation

o   1576: Ironclad warship: Oda Nobunaga

o   1582: Gregorian calendar: multiple inventors

o   1589: Stocking frame: William Lee

o   1593: Thermometer: Galileo Galilei

o   Musket in Europe

o   Pencil in England











Nuremberg_ 1561

Switzerland_ 1566


17th century


·          1600 - William Gilbert: Earth's magnetic field

o     1608: Telescope: Hans Lippershey

·          1609 - Johannes Kepler: first two laws of planetary motion

o              1609: Microscope: Galileo Galilei

·          1610 - Galileo Galilei: Sidereus Nuncius: telescopic observations

·          1614 - John Napier: use of logarithms for calculation [1]

o              1620: Slide rule: William Oughtred

o              1623: Automatic calculator: Wilhelm Schickard

·          1628 - William Harvey: Blood circulation

o              1631: Vernier scale: Pierre Vernier

o              1633: Rocket aircraft: Lagari Hasan Çelebi[38]

·          1637 - René Descartes: Scientific method

o              1642: Adding machine: Blaise Pascal

·          1643 - Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer

o              1643: Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli

o              1645: Vacuum pump: Otto von Guericke

o              1657: Pendulum clock: Christiaan Huygens

·          1662 - Robert Boyle: Boyle's law of ideal gas [2]

·          1665 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first peer reviewed scientific journal published.

·          1669 - Nicholas Steno: Proposes that fossils are organic remains embedded in layers of sediment, basis of stratigraphy

o              1672: Steam car: Ferdinand Verbiest[40][41]

·          1675 - Leibniz, Newton: infinitesimal calculus

·          1676 - Ole Rømer: first measurement of the speed of light

·          1679: Pressure cooker: Denis Papin

·          1687 - Newton: Laws of motion, law of universal gravitation, basis for classical physics

o              1698: Steam engine: Thomas Savery

o              1700: Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofori

























18th century


o      1701: Seed drill: Jethro Tull

o      1709: Iron smelting using coke: Abraham Darby I

o      1712: Steam piston engine: Thomas Newcomen

o      1710: Thermometer: René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur

o      1711: Tuning fork: John Shore

·          1714 - Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer

o              1714: Mercury thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

o              1733: Flying shuttle: John Kay

o              1742: Franklin stove: Benjamin Franklin

·          1745 - Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist first capacitor, the Leyden jar

·          1750 - Joseph Black describes latent heat

o              1750: Flatboat: Jacob Yoder

·          1751 - Benjamin Franklin: Lightning is electrical

o              1752: Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin

o              1759: Shampoo: Mahomed of India

o              1764: Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves/Thomas Highs

o              1767: Carbonated water: Joseph Priestley

o              1769: Water frame: Richard Arkwright/Thomas Highs

o              1769: Steam car: Nicolas Cugnot

o              1775: Submarine Turtle: David Bushnell

o              1776: Steamboat: Claude de Jouffroy

o              1777: Card teeth making machine: Oliver Evans

o              1777: Circular saw: Samuel Miller

o              1779: Spinning mule: Samuel Crompton

o              1780s: Iron rocket: Tipu Sultan of India

o              1783: Parachute: Jean Pierre Blanchard

o              1783: Hot air balloon: Montgolfier brothers

o              1784: Bifocals: Benjamin Franklin

o              1784: Argand lamp: Ami Argand

o              1784: Shrapnel shell: Henry Shrapnel

·          1785 - William Withering: publishes the first definitive account of the use of foxglove (digitalis) for treating dropsy

o              1785: Power loom: Edmund Cartwright

o              1785: Automatic flour mill: Oliver Evans

o              1786: Threshing machine: Andrew Meikle

·          1787 - Jacques Charles: Charles' law of ideal gas

·          1789 - Lavoisier: law of conservation of mass, basis for chemistry

o              1791: Artificial teeth: Nicholas Dubois De Chemant

o              1793: Cotton gin: Eli Whitney

o              1793: Optical telegraph: Claude Chappe

·          1796 - Georges Cuvier: Establishes extinction as a fact

o              1798: Vaccination: Edward Jenner

o              1798: Lithography: Alois Senefelder

·          1799 - William Smith: Publishes geologic map of England, first geologic map ever, first application of stratigraphy

o      1799: Seeding machine: Eliakim Spooner
























Switzerland_ 1762


















Greenwich_ 1783








19th century


o      1801: Jacquard loom: Joseph Marie Jacquard

o      1802: Screw propeller steamboat Phoenix: John Stevens

o      1802: Gas stove: Zachäus Andreas Winzler

o      1804: Locomotive: Richard Trevithick

·          1805 - John Dalton (scientist): Atomic Theory in (Chemistry)

o      1805: Submarine Nautilus: Robert Fulton

o      1807: Steamboat Clermont: Robert Fulton

o      1808: Band saw: William Newberry

o      1809: Arc lamp: Humphry Davy

o      1812: Metronome: Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel

o      1814: Steam Locomotive (Blücher): George Stephenson

o      1816: Miner's safety lamp: Humphry Davy

o      1816: Metronome: Johann Nepomuk Maelzel (reputed)

o      1816: Stirling engine: Robert Stirling

o      1816: Stethoscope: Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec

o      1817: Draisine or velocipede (two-wheeled): Karl Drais

o      1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster

·             Baha' Ullah b. Nov. 12, 1817, Tehran, Irand. May 29, 1892.

·       Baha'I Faith.

·                   The Baha'i religion.

o      1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday

o      1823: Electromagnet: William Sturgeon

·          1824 - Carnot: described the Carnot cycle, the idealized heat engine

o      1824: Portland cement: William Aspdin

o      1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce

o      1826: Internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey

·          1827 - Georg Ohm: Ohm's law (Electricity)

·          1827 - Amedeo Avogadro: Avogadro's law (Gas laws)

o      1827: Screw propeller: Josef Ressel

o      1827: Friction match: John Walker

·          1828 - Friedrich Wöhler synthesized urea, destroying vitalism

o      1830: Lawn mower: Edwin Beard Budding

o      1830: Stenotype on punched paper strip: Karl Drais

o      1831: Multiple coil magnet: Joseph Henry

o      1831: Magnetic acoustic telegraph: Joseph Henry (patented 1837)

o      1831: Reaper: Cyrus McCormick

o      1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday, Ányos Jedlik

o      1834: The Hansom cab is patented

o      1834: Louis Braille perfects his Braille system

o      1834: Refrigerator: Jacob Perkins

o      1834: Combine harvester: Hiram Moore

o      1835: Revolver: Samuel Colt

o      1835: Morse code: Samuel Morse

o      1835: Electromechanical Relay: Joseph Henry

o      1835: Incandescent light bulb: James Bowman Lindsay

o      1836: Samuel Colt receives a patent for the Colt revolver (February 24)

o      1836: Sewing machine: Josef Madersberger

o      1837: First US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport (February 25)

o      1837: Steel plow: John Deere

o      1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe

o      1837: Camera Zoom Lens: Jozef Maximilián Petzval

o      1837: Magnetic telegraph: Samuel Morse

·          1838 - Matthias Schleiden: all plants are made of cells

o      1838: Electric telegraph: Charles Wheatstone (also Samuel Morse)

o      1838: closed diving suit with a helmet: Augustus Siebe

o      1839: Vulcanization of rubber: Charles Goodyear

o      1840: Screw-propelled frigate, USS Princeton: John Ericsson

o      1840: artificial fertilizer: Justus von Liebig

o      1842 Superphosphate fertilizer: John Bennett Lawes

o      1842: Anaesthesia: Crawford Long

·          1843 - James Prescott Joule: Law of Conservation of energy (First law of thermodynamics), also 1847 - Helmholtz, Conservation of energy

o      1843: Typewriter: Charles Thurber

o      1843: Fax machine: Alexander Bain

o      1843: Ice cream maker: Nancy Johnson

o      1845: Pneumatic tyre: Robert Thomson (inventor)

·          1846 - William Morton: discovery of anesthesia

o      1846: Sewing machine: Elias Howe

o      1846: Rotary printing press: Richard M. Hoe

·          1848 - Lord Kelvin: absolute zero of temperature

o      1849: Safety pin: Walter Hunt

o      1849: Francis turbine: James B. Francis

o      1849: Telephone: Antonio Meucci

o      1852: Airship: Henri Giffard

o      1852: Passenger elevator: Elisha Otis

o      1852: Gyroscope: Léon Foucault

o      1855: Bunsen burner: Robert Bunsen

o      1855: Bessemer process: Henry Bessemer

o      1856: First celluloids: Alexander Parkes

·          1858 - Rudolf Virchow: cells can only arise from pre-existing cells

o      1858: Undersea telegraph cable: Fredrick Newton Gisborne

o      1858: Mason jar: John L. Mason

·          <