THE UNIVERSAL
ENERGIES
Mahmoud
E. Yousif
Email:
yousif@exmfpropulsions.com/
^{C}/_{O} Physics Department  The
PACS
No: 96.50.Pw,
94.30.Va, 96.50.Ek, 96.50.Ci,
96.50.Fm, 52.25.Xz, 41.20.q, 96.50.Bh,
94.10.Rk, 96.40.z, 21.30.x, 25.60.Pj, 96.60.Rd
Natural energization of electrons and protons is accomplished with and
through the production of external magnetic field (ExMF),
whenever these particles interacted with moving or rotating magnetic lines of
force. With abundant charged particles, the continuation of both mechanisms
could lead to proton and electron’s fusion as consequential resultant of
produced intense ExMF. This paper investigates some crucial main
relations and sequence of the three mechanisms based on the magnetic
interaction hypothesis (MIH), thus proposing new methods for
energies transformations, that could benefit humanity.
1:
INTRODUCTION
Sunspots are important signs for the start of solar activities; they are
interpreted as the cooler areas on the sun surface [1]. It’s formed by intense
magnetic fields that have enormous number of magnetic lines of force [2]. Evidence
of sunspots sticking out from the sun by curved magnetic field had been found
[3]. Its appearance is linked with the start of the solar flare [2], hence
ignition of intense geomagnetic storms on earth [4] leading to different
phenomena such as the aurora [5]. Solar flares are known to erupt in Galaxies
and stars [2], such as the SGR 1900+14, a neutron star about 45,000 light years away [3] that
produced magnetic fields of 8x10^{10} Tesla [6].
The
geomagnetic storms started when solar ejected flare’s protons and electrons
processed and reenergized to various energies in specific regions, such at the
bow shock [7], with existence of abnormal high magnetic fields (these fields
are referred to here as external magnetic field or ExMF, since it
is produced outside atom. The interaction regions producing ExMF,
existed near 1 AU, it also existed between 1 and 5 AU, and deep in the
geomagnetic tail [8, 9], and it’s always accompanied with a shock fronts [10].
Anomalous magnetic fields that accompanied shock waves were interpreted as
interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the detection of ExMF at
13.18 Re [11] formed the bases behind IMF, which was interpreted as been
produced by the motion of the plasma [12] or that it is dragged from the sun by
the plasma [13] then settled on the later [14], although multiple ExMF
several times in magnitudes had been detected between 1727 R_{e} in
the neutral sheet of magnetotail [14, 8,15] hence,
can ExMF (or IMF) in the magnetotail
perform the Archimedean spiral, or any rotation while shaded from the sun by
the magnetosphere?
The
low energy interplanetary particles are energized in the bow shock [7, 16] then
transferred into the magnetosphere through the magnetosheath [17].
These
energized particles forms the ring current [14], Van Allan radiation belt [18,19], and the stable aurora red arcs [20], while aurora oval
[21] particles are thought to be attained in a different mechanism.
Although
the idea of producing intense magnetic field outside atom, with ability of
changing atom’s characteristics was mentioned by Kapitza
[22], and had been suggested as a possible propellant for UFOs [23] but the
separation of IMF (or ExMF) from earthly surface magnetic
disturbances [13] brought about theories such as the electric current in the
outer layer of the magnetosphere [24], all of which lead to the present
confused situations
This
paper investigates some crucial main relations and sequence of these three
related mechanisms, based on the MIH [25], Spinning Magnetic
Force (SMFs) [26] and Element of Magnetic Lines of Force (EMLF)
[27]. These mechanisms are based on energization of charged particles on
macroscales that enable it producing ExMF, hence after a
sequence of intense ExMF build up, that could lead to the fusion
of the gyrating particles.
Therefore,
the 11¼ years cycle that leads to the formation of intense sunspots [1] is
thought of as a timely energization process of charged particles in large
scale, while gyrating around magnetic lines of force, synchronized with
production of intense ExMF leading to the fusion of charged
particles at final stage, thus resulting in the solar flares.
These
mechanisms represent the universal energies production or transformations in
the Galaxies, stars, comets and some planets. It also represents energization
of charged particles to various spectrums that produce aurora and other
phenomena in our planet and Jupiter; therefore, it may turn to be an important
method for energy transformation that may help enriching continuation of
humanity cycle.
2: ENERGIZATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES PHASEI
2.1 MICROENERGIZATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES
On
microscales, energization of charged particles by a moving or rotating
magnetic line of force [25] gives the kinetic energy K express as
Where,
B_{1} is the rotating magnetic field (movement of geomagnetic field or
the comets around the sun, while geomagnetic field also rotate daily with the
earth) in Tesla, B_{2} is the circular magnetic field in Tesla (CMF)
produced by the charged particle, r_{m} is
the magnetic radius in meter, d is the distance moved or rotate by the magnetic
field B_{1} in meter, θ is the angle between the two fields during
the capturing process, q is the elementary charge in Coulomb, v_{c} is the velocity of charged particle when
captured and the kinetic energy K is in joules (J). Thus Eq.{1}
represents the bases for further building block.
3: EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD (ExMF)
3.1 MICRO PRODUCTION
of External Magnetic Field (ExMF)
As
shown in Fig.1, micro production of ExMF
represents the imposition the production of circular magnetic field (CMF
or B_{2}) by electrons and protons [25], oppositely to the
magnetic line of force of field B_{1}, Hence
Where,
m_{e/p} electron or proton’s mass in
kg.
The micro production of External magnetic Field (ExMF) by electron in Fig.1,
(A) and proton in (B), resulted from
interaction of both particle’s circular magnetic field (CMF) with magnetic
line of force (B_{1}) [25]. Shown also, is the
relative Orbit, circular magnetic field (CMF) and ExMF dimension and
magnitudes.
3.2 PRODUCTION of INTENSE
ExMF PHASEONE
If
number of electrons or protons interacted with moving or rotating magnetic
lines of force along one meter is denoted by (n_{m}), it have field
intensity (B_{1}), therefore produced ExMF shown
in Fig.2, is given by
Where,
l is the effective length of the
magnetic lines of force around which charged particles are gyrating.
3:3 VERTICLE MAGNETIC FORCES
In the system above, a vertical magnetic force produced
from adjacent CMF_{2} [25] attracts adjacent orbital electrons or
protons towards each other, along the guiding centre as shown in Fig.{2}, the
force is given by
Where, B_{V1} and B_{V2} are
magnitudes of two tangents CMF_{2} (B_{V1}) in adjacent orbits,
r_{mv1} and r_{mv2} are radius of each CMF_{2} (B_{V2}),
c is the speed of light in ms^{1} and the vertical magnetic force (F_{mV}) or orbital lock force is in Newton.
As shown in Fig.2, When r_{mV}
decreased, B_{V1} and B_{V2} becomes part of B_{EI} Eq.{4}, becomes
3:4
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ExMF
Figs.2
& 3, shows the primary ExMF (PExMF) produced around magnetic lines of force of B_{1}
and given by Eq. {3}. Secondary ExMF (SExMF) shown in Fig.2, is a combination of CMF
produced at peripheries having larger radius, therefore both fields
participated in producing ExMF by
the following
Where,
r_{s} is the distance between two CMF
as shown in Fig.2, and γ_{PS} is the
relative magnitudes of both P & SExMF in production of ExMF.
Substituting
the gyrating radius r_{m} = mv/qB, in the above, the
following is obtained
The SExMF or B_{S} is given by
3:5
PRODUCTIONS OF INTENSE ExMFPHASETWO
Since
number of magnetic lines of force is related to magnetic field intensity (B_{1}),
[28], and it is equivalent to B_{1} x 10^{8} [27], therefore
intense ExMF (B_{EI})
produced in square meter, having both P & SExMF is given by
Where,
B_{P} is the previous field intensity. From Eq.{8}
the following is obtained
l
From Eq{10},
number of charged particles producing specific B_{EI} is given
by
The
effects of the ExMF (B_{EI})
is to reduce radius of gyration, therefore by substituting the right hand part
of Eq.{10} in the equivalent of centripetal with magnetic force, the magnetic
radius is obtained
Where, n_{o} is number of gyrating
charged particles in each orbit.
4: ENERGIZATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES PHASEII
4.1 MACROENERGIZATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES
Substituting B_{EI} given by the
right part of Eq.{10} in the right hand part of Eq.{13}, energization of
charged particles resulted from produced intense ExMF is given by
To include the K general at
each step, we attach a subscript (i) to K so that K_{i} represents the energy given at step i hence
Where the symbol _{i} indicates the value of K_{i} at
the i step
Alternatively we may introduce a dummy variable δ_{i}
that allow us to measure the change in energy in a given period of length l in such a manner its accessible to
obtain an approximate reading during this arbitrary period, hence, K_{i} can
be approximate as:
At the i step (i = 1, 2, …..n). Where δ_{i} = 1 when B >9 nT, and δ_{i}
= 0 when B = 0. If B_{EI} in Eq{13} continuously increasing, then energy built up gained by
charged particles may be approximately computed as measured
Where, K_{1}, K_{2} … K_{n} are energization
executed, ε = ε_{i}
where ε_{i}
is the error of continuity approximation at step i, K_{T} is the total
approximate energy acquired or gained by the charged particle in Joules. The
new radius r_{mE} is given by
The following are two examples showing spectrum
product of energization process.
Mag. Field & ExMF n T 
Radius m 
Force x10^{22} N ^{} 
Protons x10^{5} 
PExMF & SExMF 
Energy eV θ=75^{o} 

_{ } 
^{ } 
_{ } 

_{ } 

_{ } 
^{ } 
^{ } 
^{ } 
K 
+ 856.18 Capt.Energ. 
B_{1} 
11.0 
r_{m} 
379625.0 
F_{m} 
6.58 θ=75^{o} 
n_{1} 
0.5 
γ_{1} 
1.05 
K_{1} 
+179.50 1^{st} Energ. =1035.68
subtotal 
B_{EI1} 
12.70 
r_{ME1} 
328809.06 
F_{m1} 
7.86 
n_{2} 
0.96 
γ_{2} 
1.10 

+259.52 2^{nd} Energ. =1295.2 subtotal 
B_{EI2} 
17.74 
r_{mE2} 
325393.18 
F_{m2} 
10.98 
n_{3} 
1.42 
γ_{3} 
1.15 
K_{3} 
+529.40 3^{rd} Energ =1824.60
subtotal 
B_{EI3} 
36.19 
r_{mE3} 
115387.54 
F_{m3} 
23.19 
n_{4} 
1.88 
γ_{4} 
1.20 
K_{4} 
+2298.98 4^{th}Energ. = 4122.58
subtotal 
B_{EI4} 
157.16 
r_{mE4} 
26570.85 
F_{m4} 
100.72 
n_{5} 
2.34 
γ_{5} 
1.25 
K_{5} 
+45161.7 5^{th} Energ. =49284.35
Total 

The following step could occur at specific
conditions 

B_{EI5} 
3210.90 
r_{mE5} 
1300.53 
F_{m5} 
2057.77 
n_{6} 
2.8 
γ_{6} 
1.30 
K_{6} 
+19.6MeV6^{th}Energ. =19.65 MeV T. Ene. 

Table.1. Interaction of Protons solar wind (400kms^{1})
with geomagnetic field at 14.615 Re near down (θ=75^{o}) resulted
in ExMF (or IMF) production (see Fig.2), and related
different protons energization levels. K_{6} shows subCosmic rays
possibilities.
Mag. Field & ExMF n T 
Radius m 
Force x10^{22} N ^{} 
Electrons x10^{5} 
PExMF & SExMF 
Energy eV θ=75^{o} 

_{ } 
^{ } 
_{ } 

_{ } 

_{ } 
^{ } 
^{ } 
^{ } 
K 
+ 0.45 Capt. Energ. 
B_{1} 
11.0 
r_{m} 
206.75 
F_{m} 
6.81 θ=75^{o} 
n_{1} 
0.5 
γ_{1} 
1.05 
K_{1} 
+179.96 1^{st} Energ. =179.96
sublevel 
B_{EI1} 
12.7 
r_{ME1} 
179.07 
F_{m1} 
8.14 
n_{2} 
0.96 
γ_{2} 
1.10 

+250.592^{nd} Energ. =430.55
sublevel 
B_{EI2} 
17.74 
r_{mE2} 
128.2 
F_{m2} 
11.37 
n_{3} 
1.42 
γ_{3} 
1.15 
K_{3} 
+511.363^{rd} Energ =941.91
sublevel 
B_{EI3} 
36.19 
r_{mE3} 
62.84 
F_{m3} 
23.19 
n_{4} 
1.88 
γ_{4} 
1.20 
K_{4} 
+2220.654^{th}Energ. =3162.56
sublevel 
B_{EI4} 
157.17 
r_{mE4} 
14.47 
F_{m4} 
100.72 
n_{5} 
2.34 
γ_{5} 
1.25 
K_{5} 
+43629.315^{th}Energ. =46781.87 Total 

The following step could occur at specific
conditions 

B_{EI5} 
3087.86 
r_{mE5} 
0.74 
F_{m5} 
1978.92 
N_{6} 
2.8 
γ_{6} 
1.3 
K_{6} 
17.52MeV6^{th}Energ. =17.56 Me VT.Ene. 

Table.2. Interaction of electron’s solar wind (400
kms^{1}) with geomagnetic field at 14.615 Re near down (θ=75^{o})
resulted in ExMF (or IMF) production (see Fig.2), and related
different energization values. K_{6} shows very high energy production.
^{ }
5 MAXIMUM REPRODUCTION OF ExMF
5:1 VOLUME OF MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE
In a system such as Fig.4, where captured charged
particles are abundant and energization given by Eq.{16} is continual, orbital
charged particles are denoted by n_{o}, orbits number in one meter
along the lines of force is denoted by O_{n}, therefore the total
number of gyrating charged particles in volume of magnetic lines of force [27]
is given by
Where, N_{V} is the number of charged
particles gyrating in specific volume of magnetic lines of force.
5:2 THE ELECTRONS FUSION
As shown in Fig.4, intense B_{EI}
given by Eq.{10}cause decrease in radius of gyration, given by Eqs.{12 and 18}, hence the circumference, and adjacent
distances (r_{r}) between
orbital electrons shown in Fig.2.a, reduced from (a) to (c), therefore production
of ExMF is at its maximum; thus substituting Eq.{19} with n_{m}
in Eq.{10}, hence
Where, B_{EE} is maximum ExMF produced by electrons.
The electrons orbital magnetic force (F_{ME})
is given by
As shown in Fig.4 ExMF production increased from
intense B_{EI} to maximum B_{EE},
thus reducing radius of gyration from (a) to (b) to (c) leading to reduction of
the circumference. This state is expressed by substituting r_{m}
with m_{e}v_{c}/qB_{E}
hence
Relating Fig.4 with SMF radius r_{r} [25],
and electron’s radius [26], the circumference of gyrating particles is given by
Equivalent of Eqs.{22} and {23} gives the following SMF
distance r_{r}
The ExMF needed to give required r_{r} for
ElectronElectron interaction as shown in Fig.2, [26] is given by
Therefore, distance r_{r}
between adjacent electrons is reduced to fami range
(10^{15}), thus enhancing interaction of opposite spinning magnetic
fields (SMF) [26], therefore, producing electronsspinning
magnetic force (SMFs) [26], leading to the electrons fusion. Due
to these, the electron force (F_{ME}) given by Eq.{21} will be greater or equal to ElectronElectron
interaction SMFs [26], hence
_{ }
_{}
_{ }
As state of Eq.{26}, is
caused by B_{EE}_{ }of Eq.{20} resulted in r_{r} of Eq.{24}, electrons in orbits
and along the line of force will fuse together, thus production of ExMF will be terminated, lengthy fused electrons will be ejected from the
system, like a long web, known in Ufology as Angle
hair [29], gyration radius at this stage is
Production of ExMF is ceased by condition
given by Eq.{25}.
5:3 THE PROTONS FUSION
Like electrons, Fig.5 shows the sequences through
which orbital protons radius is reduced, while maximum proton’s ExMF produced (B_{EP}) is given by
Where, B_{EP} is the intense ExMF produced by the protons. Proton’s orbital magnetic force (F_{MP})
is given by
As shown in Fig.5, ExMF production increased from B_{EI}
to maximum B_{EP} thus reducing gyrating radius from (a)
to (b) to (c) leading to reduction of the circumference. This state is
expressed by substituting r_{m} with r_{m}=m_{p}v_{c}/qB_{E} hence
Relating Fig.5 with SMF radius r_{r} [25], and proton’s radius [26],
and Equivalent of Eqs.{23}
and {30} the following is the SMF distance r_{r}
The ExMF needed to give required r_{r} for
ProtonProton interaction as shown in Fig.2, [26] is given by
Therefore, distance r_{r} between adjacent protons
is reduced to fami range (10^{15}) thus
enhancing interaction of opposite spinning magnetic fields (SMF),
therefore, producing protonsspinning magnetic force (SMFs) or
the nuclear force in [26], leading to the protons fusion. This occurred because
the proton force (F_{ME}) given by Eq.{29}is
greater or equal to ProtonProton interaction SMFs [26], hence
_{}
The radius at which gyration is terminated, is given
by
6: PROTONS FUSION and RESULTED ENERGY
Since fusion is a reaction in which light nuclei
combined to form a nucleus of larger mass [30], therefore fused gyrating
hydrogen nucleus may form several nucleuses with accompanied energies. This is
facilitated by the transformation of protons into neutrons with the ejection of
beta particle [31, 26]. This is thought to be one of the crucial mechanism
forming solar flares, but since the major particles ejected by solar flares
composed of deuterium, tritium and both helium that constitutes the major
ejected particles, although _{} constitute
majority in some flares [2], therefore fusion shown in Fig.5, may lead to the
following possibilities.
6:1 THE DEUTERIUM
In Fig.5, two hydrogen nuclei fused to produce
hydrogen isotope deuterium after a proton changed to neutrons, having nucleons
of proton and neutron with the emission of one positron (β^{+})
[31, 26] with an accompanied energy, the reaction equation is given by
If fused protons in the field volume given by
Eq.{19} produces deuterium isotope, energy released for this interaction is 1.8
MeV, therefore, total energy resulted from deuterium
reaction is given by
6:2 THE TRITIUM
In Fig.5, three hydrogen nuclei fused to give hydrogen
isotope tritium, having nucleons of one proton and two neutrons, with the
emission of two positrons (β^{+}) [31], and accompanied energy,
the reaction equation is given by
If all protons fused into tritium, while energy Q,
released for the above interaction is 7.5 MeV,
therefore, total resulted energy is given by
6:3 THE HELIUM
Fusion of four hydrogen nuclei as shown in Fig.5,
could be transformed into the following helium products
6:3:1 THE HELIUM ISTOPE
The reaction equation for helium isotope is given by
If all protons fused into helium isotope, as usually
occurred in the sun [2], while energy Q released, by above interaction is 6.7 MeV, therefore, resulted energy given by
6:3:2 THE HELIUM
The reaction equation for helium is given by
If all protons fused into helium, while energy Q,
released for the above interaction is 24.7 MeV,
therefore, resulted energy is given by
6:3:3 THE RELATIVE FUSION and ENERGY PRODUCTS
Since natural abundance of deuterium is 0.015%, tritum is 0.001%, helium isotope is 0.000138% and 99.999862
for helium [32], and therefore, the following are thought to be an estimated
final percentage of the fusion product and energy
_{ }
_{}
_{ }
The energy could be given by
_{}
Therefore; the total energy is given by
_{}
1 This
work is aimed at forming a base upon which, better understanding and
development could be achieved in these immense field.
2 The
produced ExMF is opposite in direction to the field producing it.
3 In the
system where magnetic lines of force is moving or rotating, captured charged
particles velocity (v_{c})
is fixed, whatever energization process that takes place.
4 An
increase in the rotating magnetic field (B_{1}), appears as ExMF (B_{E}),
thus leading to new state of energization process.
5 The
total amount of energy acquired by charged particles in moving or rotating
magnetic lines of force is the summation of gained energy due to change in B_{EI}.
6 Proton’s
energies shown in Table.1 is related to production of ExMF [33].
7 Magnitude
of ExMF (B_{EI}) represents that
amount produced at specific stage.
8 Solar
flares and related emission of xray, e.u.v. and
acceleration of _{} and _{} are the
consequences of the nuclear fusion resulted from the intense ExMF as produced by charged particles before flare stage.
9 Detected
magnetic field at around ± 13.6 Re that fluctuated in magnitude and direction,
referred to as IMF [34] is thought to be the produced ExMF.
10 Energy
obtained in sec6:00 resulted from proton’s fusion, could be derived using Eq.{15} in spinning magnetic force (or nuclear force) [26].
11 This
work aimed at better understanding of solar cycle’s present changes among other
[35].
12 Tables.
1 & 2 are simplified, to give the general idea of deriving both ExMF and spectrum energies.
13 Using
Eq.{8}, the value of B is derived from
Table.1&2, gives 20 nT.
14 The Forbush decrease
in Cosmicrays, is related to the accomplishment
energization steps further than the 4th step.
Special thanks
to Dr Ali Khogali in Department of Mathematics.
Prof.
J. Otieno Malo Chairman of
Physics Department, Prof. J.P. Patel, Dr Lino
Gwaki, Dr John Buers Awuor, Dr P. Baki, Dr. Francis Nyongesa, Dr. Peter Adoke, Rajab
M. Gumma, Sediq A. Musable, Idi Taban,
Emad M. Ebeid, Neroun Philip, Alazim Suliman, Akol M. Kuol, Chiromo Library, Arnold Njeru, the Unique for computer services and The Journal of Theoretics for first reflecting these ideas.
[1] Hammer, S. Robert C.
1971 Introduction to Space Science, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. N.Y.
[2] Parker, E.N. 1979 Cosmical Magnetic Fields, Their Origin and Their Activity,
Clarendon Press,
[3] http://WWW.science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/12sep_magnetars.htm?list558599
[4] http://www.oulu.fi/~spaceweb/textbook/
[5] Hultqvist 1967 (
[6] http://WWW.solomon.as.utexas.edu/~duncan/magnetar.html.
[7] Sarries, E. T., S.M. Krimigis
and T.P. Armstrong, March 1976 Observation of a HighEnergy Ion Shock Spike in
Interplanetary Space, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 3, No. 3.
[8] Heppner J.P. 1967 (Satellite and Rocket Observations) Physics of
Geomagnetic Phenomena, Vol.II, Edit. By
[9] Scarf, F.L.,
[10] Smith, Edward J. and John H. Wolf, March 1976 (Observation of
Interaction Regions and Co rotating Shocks Between One and Five AU: Pioneers 10
and 11, Geophysical Research Letters,
Vol. 3, No. 3.
[11] Sonett, C.P., D.L. Judge and J. M. Kelso,
August, 1959 Evidence Concerning Instabilities of the Distant Geomagnetic
Field: Pioneer I, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 64, No 8.
[12] Gold, Thomas, November, 1959 Plasma and Magnetic Fields in the
Solar System, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 64, No 11.
[13] Parker,
[14] King, J.W. and W.S. Newman (Editors), 1967 SolarTerrestrial
Physics, Academic Press,
[15] White, R. Stephen 1970 Space Physics, Gordon and Breach, Science
Publication,
[16] Gloeckler, G. and F.M. Ipavich June1974
PostShock Spikes: A new feature of proton and Alpha Enhancements Associated
with an Interplanetary Shock Wave, Geophysical Research
Letters, Vol. 1, No.2.
[17] Eastman, T.E., E.W. Hones Jr., S.T. Bame
and J.R. Asbridge, November 1976 The
Magnetospheric Boundary Layer: Site of Plasma, Momentum and Energy Transfer
From Magnetosheath Into The Magnetosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.
3, No.11.
[18] Van Allen, James,
November, 1959 The Geomagnetically Trapped Corpuscular
Radiation, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 64, No
11.
[19] Kern, John W. 1967 “Magnetosphere and Radiation Belt” Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Edit. By
[20] COLE, K.D.1967 (On the D Main Phase and certain Associated
Phenomena), Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Vol.II,
Edit. By
[21] Akasofu,
S.I. 1967 (The Aurora Oval and The Internal Structure of Magnetosphere) AURORA
AND AIRGLOW, Proceeding of The NATO Advanced Study Institute held at the
University of Keele Staffordshire, England, August
1526 1966, Edit. By Billy M. McCormac,
Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
[22] Kapitza,
P. 1967 Collected Papers of P. Kapitza (The
Production of and Experiments in Strong Magnetic Field), Edited by D. Ter Hear, Pergamon Press,
[23] Ashpole,
Edward 1995 The UFO Phenomena, Headline,
[24] Akasofu,
S.I. and S. Chapman 1967 (Geomagnetic Storms and
[25] Yousif, Mahmoud E. “The Magnetic Interaction”, Comprehensive Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics,
Vol. 53, June/July 2003, or at: http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MY.pdf .
[26] Yousif, Mahmoud E. Spinning Magnetic Field, Theoretics, Vol. 55, OctNov 2003. Comprehensive Theory
Articles at: http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MYS.pdf
[27] Yousif, Mahmoud E. ELEMETS OF THE
MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE,
Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 55, OctNov 2003.
Comprehensive Theory Articles at: http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MYE.pdf [28] Nightingale E., 1958 Magnetism and Electricity, G. Bell and
Sons Ltd.
[29]
Spencer, John 1991 The UFO Encyclopedia, Headline, Glasgo.
[30] Trinklein, F. E. 1990
Modern Physics, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, N.Y).
[31] Elwell D. and A.J. 1978 Pointon Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Ellis Horwood Ltd.
[32] EMSLEY,
Jhone 1991 The Elements
Clarendon Press,
[33] McCormac, Billy
1967 (Introduction) AURORA AND AIRGLOW, Proceeding of The NATO Advanced Study Institute
held at the University of Keele Staffordshire,
England, August 1526 1966, Edit. By Billy M. McCormac, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
[34] Sonett, C.P., E.J.
Smith and A.R. Sims 1960 (Surveys of The Distant Geomagnetic Field, Pioneer 1
and Explorer VI) Space Research, Proceeding of the First International Space
Science Symposium Nice, January 1116, 1960, Ed. By Hilde Kallmann Bijl, NorthHolland
Publication Company, Amesterdam.
[35] http://www.science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/12nov_haywire.htm?list558599
Published
by: