*THE SPINNING
MAGNETIC FORCE*

Mahmoud E. Yousif

E-mail: yousif@exmfpropulsions.com

Tel: (+254) 715585050, Fax:
(+254-2) 4448540

^{C}/_{O} Physics Department - The

PACS No: 12.10.Dm, 13.75.Cs, 21.10.Dr, 21.30.-x, 21.10.Hw

*ABSTRACT*

Formulas for magnitudes
of the spinning magnetic field (** SMF**) produced by protons,
electrons and neutrons are derived. Interaction mechanism between each group of
particles and with others produced spinning magnetic force (

*1- INTRODUCTION*

The need for an alternative source of energy, combined with need to
explain many phenomena, leads to the establishment of the Magnetic Interaction
Hypothesis (** MIH**), [1], in which the nature and mechanism of the
nuclear force had been established as an interaction caused by spinning
magnetic field (

*2- SPINNING MAGNETIC
FIELD*

*2.1 PROTON SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD*

The total magnetic field (** B_{T}**) identified
as the spinning magnetic field (

_{}

Where, ** B_{1P}** is proton's

*2.2
NEUTRONS SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD*

Since
neutrons data imply that it have an internal structure which include positive
and negative charges [8], therefore re-arrangements of known data lead to
assumption that neutrons are resulted from interaction of both electrons and
protons, where they oppositely spins within one sphere. Since opposite gyration
of electrons and protons around fixed center produced magnetic fields of same
direction, [9] therefore, combination of both fields in neutron is given by

_{}

Where, **B _{1N}**
is the neutron

*2.3
ELECTRON SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD (ESMF)*

It is
thought that, while in neutrons electron’s spinning frequency (f_{es}) is reduced according to electron-proton
mass ratio (1/1836.152756). Therefore, electron spinning frequency (f_{es}) is given by

_{}

Where, m_{e}
is electron mass and the electron spinning frequency f_{es}
is in s^{-1}.

Therefore,
electron’s total produced spinning magnetic field (** ESMF**) is given
by

_{}

Where, r_{e}
is the electron radius, **B _{TE}** is in Tesla. Fig.1, shows the
relative structure of electrons SMF.

Fig.1. Relative intensities
of spinning magnetic field (** SMF**) and interaction mechanism for

** E-E**,

*3- THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FORCE (**SMFs**)*

*3:1
PROTON-PROTON INTERACTION*

Interaction
between two proton’s ** SMF** produced spinning magnetic force (

_{}

Where, ** n**
is the number of steps moved by

*3:2
ELECTRON-ELECTRON INTERACTION*

Under
certain conditions electrons interacts with each other, produced ** SMFs
F_{S(EE)}** is given by

_{}

Where, **B _{TE}**
is the electron’s

*3:3
ELECTRON-PROTON INTERACTION (NEUTRON PRODUCTION)*

Interaction
of electron’s and proton’s ** SMF** produced attractive

The ** SMFs**
is given by

_{}

Where, **B _{TE}**
is the electron’s

*3:4
PROTON-NEUTRON INTERACTION*

Whenever
proton’s and neutron’s ** SMF** comes under each other field of
influence, a

_{}

Where, **B _{TN}**
is the neutron’s

Fig. 2. Spinning magnetic force (** SMFc**)
resulted from interaction of Electron-Electron (

*3:5 NEUTRON-NEUTRON INTERACTION*

Whenever
two neutron’s ** SMF** comes under each other influence as shown in
Fig.1-E, a

_{}

Where, **B _{TN}**
is the neutron’s

*4- THE NUCLEAR ENERGY*

*4:1
NEUTRON MASS*

Electrons
and protons interaction give raise to great velocity and energy within ** SMF**
therefore the energy of the system as given by Eq.{14} [1] is related to
Einstein’s relation of mass and energy, thus the following is obtained

_{}

From
Eq.{10}, resulted neutron mass is given by

_{}

Where, m_{p}
and m_{e} are the proton and electron mass in kg respectively, c is the
speed of the light in m.s^{-1}, and the neutron mass m_{n} is in kg.

*4:2
NUCLEUSES MASS DEFICIENCY*

Interaction
between nucleons (**N-P** and **N-N**), cause nucleus mass deficiency,
the interaction of intense ** SMF** is thought to cause nuclear mass
deficiency thus

_{}

Where, m_{p}
is proton’s rest mass and m_{pd} is proton
mass in the nuclei.

While,
interaction of two neutrons is given by

_{}

Where, m_{nd1}
is neutron mass in kg resulted from N-P interaction, while interaction of **N-N**
inside nucleus, cause nuclear mass deficiency, the new neutron mass (m_{nd2})
is express by

_{}

Where, m_{n} is the neutron rest mass and m_{nd2}
is the neutron mass in nucleus.

*4:3
MASS DEFICIENCY IN GENERALY *

The general
equation for obtaining mass of a nucleus is given by

_{}

Where, N_{p} is the number of protons, N_{n1} is
the number of neutrons interacted through **P-N**, N_{n2} is the
number of neutrons interacted through **N-N** the nucleus mass m_{ud}
is in kg.

*5- CONCLUSION*

1-
This paper present what thought to be the basic ideas about ** SMF**
and

2-
** SMFs**
form the nuclear force in nucleus, it also give the important

3-
The four major interactions (**E-P**, **P-P**, **P-N** and **N-N**)
gives the same shapes, it only differ in magnitudes.

4-
Graph of **E-P** interaction could never easily be measured because
of it is illusiveness.

5-
As protons and neutrons are important in nucleus formation, so
electrons and protons are important in the production of external magnetic
field (** EMF**) and Neutrons formation.

6-
**E-E** interaction operates
within the repulsive range of the graph.

7-
Decrease of** SMFs **for

8-
These ideas should give better understanding to block structure of many
phenomena, among them, the aurora, nuclear fusion and the structure of new
flying objects (**NFO’s**).

9-
In nucleus, combination of electrons and protons ** SMF**
behave and rotate as one unit, when disintegrated, both particles start
precession, thus bringing change in the axis of

10- The value of some parameters are:
r_{o} = 0.468 fm, r_{p}
= r_{n} = r_{e} = 1.1060236231x10^{-15}
m, f_{ps} = 0.079577471 S, f_{es} =
3683.223344 s^{-1}.

11- Physical constant used, [2] are: q = 1.60217733x10^{-19}
C, m = 9.1093897x10^{-31} kg. h = 6.6260755x10^{-34} J.s, m_{p} = 1.6726231x10^{-27} kg, m_{n} =
1.6749286x10^{-27 }kg. and ,* **e*_{o}_{ }= 8.854223x10^{-12}
C^{2}.N^{-1}.m^{-2} [5]

*AKNOWLEDGMENT*

Gratitude
to my sister Safya, her husband Abubakar
Mohamad and family for their hospitality. The
Chairman of Physics Department, University of Nairobi Prof. J. Otieno Malo, late Prof. B.O.
Kola, Dr John Buers Awuor
Dr Lino Gwaki and, Dr P. Baki
in the Physics Department. Late Yousif Kuwa Makki, Nuba Relief Rehabilitation
and Development Organization (NRRDO), particularly Mr
Ali Abdulrahman, Ramadan Hassan and Jacob Idriss. Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Mahamad,
Halima, Hukmalla and Ismail. Finally, Arnold Njeru and Chiromo Library Stuff.

*6- REFERENCE*

[1] Yousif, Mahmoud E. “The Magnetic Interaction”, Comprehensive
Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 5-3, June/July 2003.

At: http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MY.pdf

[2] Trinklein, F. E. 1990 Modern Physics, Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, N.Y).

[3]

[4] McGraw-Hill
Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology 1982 5th edition, Vol.14, McGraw-Hill
Book Co.,

[5] Elwell D. and A.J. 1978 Pointon
Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Ellis Horwood
Ltd.

[6] Roger Ellman, “A New Look at the Neutron and the Lamb Shift”,
Comprehensive Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics.

[7] Gabriel Thierrin “From Hydrogen Atoms to Neutrons” Journal of
Theoretics, Vol. 5-3 June/July 2003.

[8] Yuval Ne´eman and Yoram Kirsh, 1996 The Particle Hunters,

[9] Mouldin, John H. 1986 Particlec
in Nature, Tab Books Inc., blue Ridge Summit, PA.

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