Mahmoud E. Yousif


Tel: (+254) 715585050, Fax: (+254-2) 4448540

C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi

P.O.Box 30197 - Nairobi-Kenya


PACS No: 12.10.Dm, 13.75.Cs, 21.10.Dr, 21.30.-x, 21.10.Hw




Formulas for magnitudes of the spinning magnetic field (SMF) produced by protons, electrons and neutrons are derived. Interaction mechanism between each group of particles and with others produced spinning magnetic force (SMFs) of different magnitudes. Energies resulted from these interactions and mass changed are derived.



The need for an alternative source of energy, combined with need to explain many phenomena, leads to the establishment of the Magnetic Interaction Hypothesis (MIH), [1], in which the nature and mechanism of the nuclear force had been established as an interaction caused by spinning magnetic field (SMF), the example of proton-proton interaction was given. Characteristics of neutrons, that it disintegrate at period of 918 seconds [2], it possess major characteristics of both electrons and protons, except elementary charge, it disintegrates into an electron and a proton [3], it exist in cosmic rays by being liberated from atomic nuclei [4], it spins like the other fundamental particles [5], it produced spinning magnetic field (SMF) that would be caused by spinning point charge with negative charge of about 1.9 times the fundamental unite [3]. Based on MIH [1], these characteristics were reorganized with a postulation that, the interaction of electrons and protons through SMF and electrostatic field producing an attractive spinning magnetic force (SMFs) and electrostatic force, leading to the integration of both particles, interactions mechanism and equations for these particles are shown, electrostatic mechanism for neutrons formation had been suggested [6] and a way of generating neutrons from hydrogen atoms was assumed [7], all of which reflects trend for restoration of order. The strong SMFs, bring change in energy and mass of the particles in line with Einsteinís relation relating both. Understanding particles interaction could clarify the mechanism behind atomic structure, molecules formations production of external magnetic field and nuclear fusion leading to the understanding of the building blocks for various higher mechanisms that accompanied fusion in stars and planets or different other phenomena.




The total magnetic field (BT) identified as the spinning magnetic field (SMF) produced above poles of spinning particles [1], is derived from Newtonís second law, Coulombís electrostatic law and Biot-Savart law for magnetic field in/outside a loop. As shown Fig.1, magnitude of the total magnetic field (BTp) given by

Where, B1P is proton's SMF (B1U for nucleus hydrogen atom), fps is the proton's spinning frequency, ro is the radial distance from proton surface to a point at which BTP is produced (ro=0.468 fm), rr is distance from proton's surface along the magnetic field, mo is the permeability of the free space, eo is the permittivity of free space the BTp is in Tesla. Fig.1, shows the relative structure of protons SMF.


Since neutrons data imply that it have an internal structure which include positive and negative charges [8], therefore re-arrangements of known data lead to assumption that neutrons are resulted from interaction of both electrons and protons, where they oppositely spins within one sphere. Since opposite gyration of electrons and protons around fixed center produced magnetic fields of same direction, [9] therefore, combination of both fields in neutron is given by

Where, B1N is the neutron SMF, fns is neutron spinning frequency it is a combination of protonís spinning frequency (fps) and electronís spinning frequency (fes), fns = fps x fes BTN is in Tesla. Fig.1, shows the relative structure of neutrons SMF.



It is thought that, while in neutrons electronís spinning frequency (fes) is reduced according to electron-proton mass ratio (1/1836.152756). Therefore, electron spinning frequency (fes) is given by

Where, me is electron mass and the electron spinning frequency fes is in s-1.

Therefore, electronís total produced spinning magnetic field (ESMF) is given by

Where, re is the electron radius, BTE is in Tesla. Fig.1, shows the relative structure of electrons SMF.



Fig.1. Relative intensities of spinning magnetic field (SMF) and interaction mechanism for P-P,

E-E, E-P (Neutron production), P-N and N-N. The figure also shows interaction parameters.



Interaction between two protonís SMF produced spinning magnetic force (SMFs) which is the nuclear force for nucleons [1]. Taken Coulomb force under consideration, the result of two protons SMFs is given by

Where, n is the number of steps moved by SMF starting from r = 0.8 fm (rr = 0.4fm), rx is the distance moved at each step (rx = 0.05fm), the SMFs (FS(PP)) (or nuclear force for nucleons) is in Newton. Characteristics of SMFs resulted from proton-proton (P-P) interaction, is shown in Fig.2.


Under certain conditions electrons interacts with each other, produced SMFs FS(EE) is given by

Where, BTE is the electronís SMF in Tesla. Characteristics of SMFs resulted from Electron-Electron (E-E), is shown in Fig.2.


Interaction of electronís and protonís SMF produced attractive SMFs and mutual electrostatic force. As shown in Fig.2, result of magnitude for both forces increases at very short distances, finally leading to the integration of both particles, thus with both particles spins oppositely, therefore neutralizing each other charge that responsible for the production of circular magnetic field (CMF).

The SMFs is given by

Where, BTE is the electronís SMF in Tesla. Characteristics of SMFs resulted from Electron-Proton (E-P) interaction, is shown in Fig.2.


Whenever protonís and neutronís SMF comes under each other field of influence, a SMFs FS (PN) (or nuclear force) is produced, the force is given by

Where, BTN is the neutronís SMF in Tesla, the SMFs FS (PN) is in Newton. Characteristics of SMFs resulted from Proton-Neutron (P-N) interaction, is shown in Fig.2.


Fig. 2. Spinning magnetic force (SMFc) resulted from interaction of Electron-Electron (E-E), Proton-Proton (P-P), Electron-Proton E-P (Neutral production), Proto-Neutron (P-N) and Neutron-Neutron (N-N). SMFcalso Represents the Nuclear force for nucleons.††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††


Whenever two neutronís SMF comes under each other influence as shown in Fig.1-E, a SMFs FS (NN) (or nuclear force) is produced, the force is given by

Where, BTN is the neutronís SMF in Tesla. Characteristics of SMFs resulted from Neutron-Neutron (N-N) interaction, is shown in Fig.2.



Electrons and protons interaction give raise to great velocity and energy within SMF therefore the energy of the system as given by Eq.{14} [1] is related to Einsteinís relation of mass and energy, thus the following is obtained

From Eq.{10}, resulted neutron mass is given by

Where, mp and me are the proton and electron mass in kg respectively, c is the speed of the light in m.s-1, and the neutron mass mn is in kg.


Interaction between nucleons (N-P and N-N), cause nucleus mass deficiency, the interaction of intense SMF is thought to cause nuclear mass deficiency thus

Where, mp is protonís rest mass and mpd is proton mass in the nuclei.

While, interaction of two neutrons is given by

Where, mnd1 is neutron mass in kg resulted from N-P interaction, while interaction of N-N inside nucleus, cause nuclear mass deficiency, the new neutron mass (mnd2) is express by

Where, mn is the neutron rest mass and mnd2 is the neutron mass in nucleus.


The general equation for obtaining mass of a nucleus is given by

Where, Np is the number of protons, Nn1 is the number of neutrons interacted through P-N, Nn2 is the number of neutrons interacted through N-N the nucleus mass mud is in kg.




1-     This paper present what thought to be the basic ideas about SMF and SMFs produced and resulted from the elementary particles.

2-     SMFs form the nuclear force in nucleus, it also give the important E-N interaction among many others.

3-     The four major interactions (E-P, P-P, P-N and N-N) gives the same shapes, it only differ in magnitudes.

4-     Graph of E-P interaction could never easily be measured because of it is illusiveness.

5-     As protons and neutrons are important in nucleus formation, so electrons and protons are important in the production of external magnetic field (EMF) and Neutrons formation.

6-     E-E interaction operates within the repulsive range of the graph.

7-     Decrease of SMFs for E-P interaction at r < 0.9 fm due to the repulsive force latter overcome by electrostatic force.

8-     These ideas should give better understanding to block structure of many phenomena, among them, the aurora, nuclear fusion and the structure of new flying objects (NFOís).

9-     In nucleus, combination of electrons and protons SMF behave and rotate as one unit, when disintegrated, both particles start precession, thus bringing change in the axis of ESMF and PSMF, therefore repelling each other magnetically.

10- The value of some parameters are: ro = 0.468 fm, rp = rn = re = 1.1060236231x10-15 m, fps = 0.079577471 S, fes = 3683.223344 s-1.

11- Physical constant used, [2] are: q = 1.60217733x10-19 C, m = 9.1093897x10-31 kg. h = 6.6260755x10-34 J.s, mp = 1.6726231x10-27 kg, mn =1.6749286x10-27 kg. and , eo = 8.854223x10-12 C2.N-1.m-2 [5]


Gratitude to my sister Safya, her husband Abubakar Mohamad and family for their hospitality. The Chairman of Physics Department, University of Nairobi Prof. J. Otieno Malo, late Prof. B.O. Kola, Dr John Buers Awuor Dr Lino Gwaki and, Dr P. Baki in the Physics Department. Late Yousif Kuwa Makki, Nuba Relief Rehabilitation and Development Organization (NRRDO), particularly Mr Ali Abdulrahman, Ramadan Hassan and Jacob Idriss. Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Mahamad, Halima, Hukmalla and Ismail. Finally, Arnold Njeru and Chiromo Library Stuff.



[1] Yousif, Mahmoud E. ďThe Magnetic InteractionĒ, Comprehensive Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 5-3, June/July 2003.


[2] Trinklein, F. E. 1990 Modern Physics, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, N.Y).

[3] Davis, P.C.W. 1979 The Forces of Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[4] McGraw-Hill Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology 1982 5th edition, Vol.14, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

[5] Elwell D. and A.J. 1978 Pointon Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Ellis Horwood Ltd. Chester.

[6] Roger Ellman, ďA New Look at the Neutron and the Lamb ShiftĒ, Comprehensive Theory Articles, Journal of Theoretics.

[7] Gabriel Thierrin ďFrom Hydrogen Atoms to NeutronsĒ Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 5-3 June/July 2003.

[8] Yuval Neīeman and Yoram Kirsh, 1996 The Particle Hunters, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[9] Mouldin, John H. 1986 Particlec in Nature, Tab Books Inc., blue Ridge Summit, PA.


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