The Solar Flare Mechanism

By: Mahmoud E. Yousif

e-mail: yousif@exmfpropulsions.com

C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi

P.O. Box 30197 - Nairobi-Kenya

PACS No: Solar flares, 96.60.qe


Solar flares are the enormous nuclear explosion occurs inside or on the solar peripheries. The earlier produced pairs of sunspots pillars consist of electrons and protons, both of which produced intense external magnetic field (ExMF). Gyrating protons radius in the pillars are constantly reduced by increased ExMF, this with nearby ExMF produced by electrons pillars, allowed for either of two types of solar flares, 1- The Natural Triggered Flare Mechanism (NTFM), and 2- The Triggered Magnetic Connection (TFMR). The triggered nuclear fusion, produced electromagnetic radiation, different combination of particles and enormous energy, all of which related to level of the explosion, which is based on protons involved.

1:00 Introduction

Solar flares are the most famous aspect of solar activities, they are intense, short-lived releases of energy, seen as bright areas on the Sun in optical wavelengths and as bursts of noise in radio wavelengths; they can last from minutes to hours, and they are the largest explosive events that occurs in the solar system. The primary energy source for flares were thought to appears from the tearing and connection  of strong magnetic fields [1].

The output radiation of flares covers throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to x-rays, through visible light out to kilometer-long radio waves, NOAA/SEC images [2], SOHO and SDO movies [3], [4], showed the link between Sunspots and the eruption process igniting the solar flares and prominence.

Geomagnetic activities, such as aurora, are caused by charged particles resulted from Solar flares, while intense flare may damage telecommunications, electricity, telegraphs and communication satellites [5]. Solar flares are associated with the sunspots and the intense magnetic fields produced by these sunspots, in a process known as the magnetic connection [1]. The mechanism through which the magnetic connection undergoing to initiate solar flare is unknown [6].

Solar flare mechanism was tackled in the Universal Energies (UE) [7], in which the explosion was interpreted as nuclear fusion, and initiated by the external magnetic field (ExMF), both the nuclear fusion and ExMF in addition to the energization of charged particles were considered the trio elements of the UE [7].

The famous prominence eruption arising and falling back into a spinning sunspot first aired by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) [8], inspired to revisit the solar activities, which resulted in the sunspots mechanism [9], and since sunspots and solar flare are closely related, therefore, the solar flare is re-expanded to include the main two types of solar flares and different related mathematical equations.

This paper, showed solar flares relation with sunspots and sequences of events inside protons sunspots pillars that triggered the nuclear fusion and internal and external ExMF role in producing that. The two types of trigger process are, (a) The Natural Triggered Flare Mechanism (NTFM) and (b) The Triggered Magnetic Connection (TFMR).

As the mechanisms of solar activities are not well understood, this paper may help providing that, and to harness the vast energies available in these transformation and above all understanding the process which may help protecting earth orbital communication satellites and to secure continuation of human species.

The paper is built on previous magnetic interaction (MIH) [10] and related Spinning Magnetic Force (SMFc) [11], and the Elements of Magnetic Lines of Force (EMLF) [12], all of which formed the bases upon which several phenomena were explained, the mechanism of each phenomenon may change but the bases upon which they are structured is the same.

2:00 Sunspots and The Solar Flares

Although a link between solar flare and nuclear fusion  was earlier suggested, but rejected due to low densities in upper chromosphere or lower corona [1], this school of thought is the one lead to tokamak model [13] as the only means to ignite and sustain nuclear fusion.

The positive sunspots, composed of protons particles, and the negative sunspots composed of electrons particles, are produced and ejected from tachocline zones, then appearing on solar surface and moved towards the polar region, Fig.1 in Sunspots Mechanism [9], shoed cross section of the two sunspots pillars, before ejection, solar activities started at appearance of these sunspots effects on photosphere [14], marking the starting of the solar cycle.

Since Solar flares is greatly related to the sunspots appearance, it is also found that flares usually occurs near and along the dividing line (neutral line) between areas of oppositely directed magnetic fields of sunspots [15], and the development of flares seems to be the same regardless of the their sizes, with filamentary structure, production of (He3), high energies particles which are thrown from flare region, with total energy that can amount to 1023 Joules [1].

The current Eddington stars model [16], and nuclear fusion model developed by Hans Albrecht Bethe in1938 [17],  [18], limited fusion reactor to stars inner cores [19] which is the source of above tokamak model [13], where some physicists started questioning that model [20].


The Solar flares are thought to represents nuclear fusion, ignited through one of two mechanisms:

(a) The Natural Triggered Flare Mechanism (NTFM).

(b) The Triggered Flare Magnetic Connection (TFMR).

In both assumptions, flares are caused by sunspots which are always moving in pairs with different polarities [9], [21] as shown in Fig.1, where the shorten of magnetic lines of force and release of magnetic energy, means the connection of two tubes of force interchange their end points [22], only represents start of sequence of events.

3:0 The Natural Triggered Flare Mechanism (NTFM)

The formation and movement of protons pillars shown in Fig.1, produced ExMF with intensity  continually building up [9], each pillar attracts more protons (or electrons) while moving towards the photosphere (or towards both polar), the radius of gyration, starts reduced, with intense produced ExMF. The magnetic force exerted on each gyrating particle is:

Where, BEx is the continual produced ExMF, Bp(e) is protons or electrons circular magnetic field (CMF) [10] in Tesla,  rm2 is the magnetic radius in meter, C is the speed of light in m. s-1, the magnetic force Fm is in Newton.

The produced ExMF reflected in the energization of both electrons and protons increasing their energies [10, 7, 23, 9].

The intense produced ExMF decreased radius of gyration for all protons (or electrons), and reduced distances between any two adjacent electrons and protons [7], this field is given by.

Where,  is the previous magnetic field (starting with original field B1) in Tesla, c is speed of light in m.s-1, l is the effective length of the magnetic lines of force (along which charged particles gyrates) in meters, q is the elementary charge in Coulomb, nm is the number of charged particles along one meter length, m is the mass of charged particles in kg, vc is velocity of captured charged particle in m.s-1, γps is the relative magnitudes of the primary and secondary ExMF in the final production of solar ExMF [23], and the produced BSEI is in Tesla.

Protons (or electrons) gyrate in orbits inside sunspots pillars shown in Fig.1, the circumferential distance of any orbit is designated by sunspot orbit (OS), and protons and electrons radius is designated by rp(e) and stability distances in spinning magnetic force or nuclear fusion ignition radius is rr [11] as shown in Fig.2, the number of protons or electrons fused in an orbit is given by

Where, OS1 is sunspot first circumferential orbit in meter, rp(e) is proton or electron radius in meters, rr is the nuclear fusion ignition radius in spinning magnetic force (SMFc) shown in Fig.5 at SMFc [10] [11], or Fig.2 bellow in meter, ro1 is the first orbital radius in a sunspot in meter, and NO is the number of protons or electrons in each orbit.

 At fusion, protons (or electrons) number along the sunspots height shown in Fig.1, is given by

Where, HS is the effective sunspot height in meters, DH is the distance between two gyrating orbits in meters, and NH is the number of protons or electron along the height.

Particles fused in a lengthy Sunspot orbits are multiplication of both Eq.{3} and {4}, result of which is given by:

Where, NLO is the total number of fused protons or electron in a lengthy orbit.

The number of orbits along a specific lengthy distance RL is given by:

Where, DO is the distance between orbits, and OSx is numbers of orbits along specific distance. Combining Eq.{5} and Eq.{6}, gives the total number of protons or electrons fused in sunspot, it is given by:

Where, NST is the total number of fused protons or electrons in sunspot.

From the Universal Energies [7], the orbital magnetic force given by Eq.{1} on an orbital protons or electrons, is given by

While near the photosphere or deep inside the sun, sunspots ExMF increased from intense BSEI to maximum BSEE, this state is shown by the three levels radial reduction in Fig.2, thus radius of gyration reduced from (a) to (b) to (c), therefore the circumference is reduced. This state is expressed by substituting ro in the following equation with mevc/qBE hence

Relating Fig.3 with nuclear fusion ignition (SMFc) radius rr [7], and proton’s (or electron’s) radius [10], the circumference of gyrating particles in Eq.{3} is given by

Substituting Eq.{10} in Eq.{9} gives the following SMF distance rr

The intensity of ExMF (BTEx) needed to trigger required distance of rr for Proton-Proton (or Electron-Electron) interaction previously shown in Fig.2 at the SMFc, [11] is given by

Therefore, distance rr between adjacent proton (or electrons) is reduced to fami range (10-15), thus interaction of opposite spinning magnetic fields (SMF) is enhanced [11], and the protons (or electrons)-spinning magnetic force (SMFs) is produced [11], therefore nuclear fusion of protons (or electrons) fusion is achieved. The latest composed movie by both the SOHO and SDO clearly shoed magnetic movements before the explosion [24].

Due to these, the protons (or electrons) force (FMP(E)) given by Eq.{8} will be greater or equal to Proton-Proton (or Electron-Electron) interaction force (FSPP(EE)) SMFs [11], hence

Where, the FSPP(EE) is the spinning magnetic force (SMFc)) (or nuclear force for nucleons), in Newton.

As state, Eq.{13} is caused by BSEE of Eq.{2} resulted in rr of Eq.{11}, all protons (or electrons) in orbits along the sunspot height will fuse together, thus ExMF production will ceased, energetic electrons will be ejected and escalated from the system, while protons fusion will generate great amount of energy and the triggered gyrating radius (rmT) at this stage is

Production of ExMF is ceased by condition given by Eq.{12}.

This process takes long period of time, the nuclear fusion occurred along the first or multiple inner orbits of gyrating protons, depends on the magnitude of produced ExMF, therefore fusion of such process works in a similar manner like an iris, where an increased ExMF, forced protons radius to be reduced, until eruption occurred.

ExMF produced from such natural solar flare eruption may produced intense ExMF, that may trigger sequence of other flares within the same sunspot spatial.

4:0 The Triggered Flare Magnetic Connection (TFMR)

From observations and studies of different flares, it became known that sunspots group with complex magnetic field configurations, often are sites of flares [25], it was discovered that, the solar magnetic field lines forming the letter 'S', to be connected, it's like a coronal short circuit, causing the coronal mass ejection (CME), thus solar flare occurred due to Connection of sunspots magnetic field [26], the connection depicted by an artist shown in Fig.3 [27] showed the two sunspots and the connection of two magnetic poles, resulted in a sudden violent movements, and abruption of different  electromagnetic radiations of various wavelength with sudden massive flow of charged particles from the solar surface, all these takes from minutes to as long as hours [28].

The above discussed NTFM, takes longer period to reach nuclear fusion triggered status, while in triggered flare magnetic Connection  (TFMR) nuclear fusion, eruption occurred when ExMF produced by both electrons and protons Sunspot pillars shown in Fig.1, suddenly interacted, shortening their magnetic fields and reducing gyrating radius.

Since both the negative and positive pillars, moves alongside while gyrating in opposite direction [29], shown in Fig.1, and as computerized assimilated [30] therefore, intense produced ExMF occasionally comes into each other’s fields influences, producing the spark and igniting the flare [31], when the distance between both sunspots shortened, or both ExMF are intense, as shown by the x-rays photo of the s-shape region shown in Fig.3 [32], these regions of different polarities interacted magnetically [10], resulted in magnetic force given by Eq.{1}, becomes

Where, BPS and BTEx are the ExMF produced by protons and electrons sunspots in Tesla, rPES2 is the distance between the two sunspots in meters, c is the speed of light in m.s-1, the sunspots Connection  force Frc is in Newton.

The interaction of two such massive ExMF is synonymous to square root of Eq.{2} thus

Where, BMTEx is the sunspot momentarily Triggered  ExMF.

But above produced BMTEx is greater than the magnetic fields required by Eq.{12} to shorten rr distance for Proton-Proton (or Electron-Electron) interaction, shown in Fig.2, [11], thus we get

This sudden ExMF increases, decreased the orbital radius, and distance rr between adjacent proton (or electrons) to fami range (10-15), the SMF of adjacent protons comes into the influence of each other [11], therefore protons in several lengthy orbits interacts thus producing the SMFc or the nuclear force, which in turns produced the nuclear fusion or the Solar Flare starting with the A Large  Moreton wave which look like Tsunami Shock Wave [33, 34, 35].

This sudden violence eruption is stronger than the NTFM, because it trigger several lengthy orbital layers, and differ in time factor to achieve the interaction process, where interactions of ExMF accelerates the flare process.

5:0 Solar Fusions And Related Flares Energies:

Energy given by solar flares in minutes can exceed that given by 100 hurricanes on Earth [28], flares ejected electrons up to 10 MeV and nucleons to hundreds of MeV [22], these are particles gained energies through energization process inside the sunspots [9], [7], [10] and resulted fusions, but energy produced by solar flare is proportional to involved protons number in this nuclear fusion and the final reaction output, therefore, energies produced by solar flares or any similar system composed of following energies:

1-     Charged particles energies gain from energization process.

2-     Energy resulted from fusion interaction.

3-     Related electromagnetic radiation.

Since natural abundance of deuterium is 0.015%, tritium is 0.001%, helium isotope is 0.000138% and 99.999862 for helium [36], the following is thought to be an estimate of final fusion energy product related to these proportionalities [7]


Where, QTHe is the energy released due to fusion interaction.

From Eq.{18}, the total energy resultant from sunspots fusion reaction is given by

Where, NST is the total sunspot protons involve in such fusion reaction. Since the total number of protons (NST) involved in such SMFc interaction, or nuclear fusion was given by Eq.{8}, therefore multiplying this with energy produced by fused nuclei, given by Eq.{19}.

Therefore, solar flare energy QSF is given by

Solar flare fusion triggered by the magnetic flare connection process, involved both the positive protons and negative electrons sunspots, this explains radiation of both Gamma-Rays by ions and X-rays by electrons during and within two different nuclear reactions, triggered by a TFMC, thus exploding solar flares energetic electrons and ions as shown in Fig.4, [37]. The flare observations showed, sources of both rays are very fare, they were electrons and ions, the gamma- rays is coming from feet of large magnetic field loops, while the X-rays come from the feet of the small magnetic loops near the larger ones [38], this can be compared with Fig.1.

Since 1 M eV = 1.60 x 10-12 j, and 1 Joule/Sec = 1 Watt, therefore Eq.{20} becomes:

But since Solar Flares are classified based on their X-rays output, that is in accordance to the magnitude order of the peak burst intensity (I), measured at earth in the 0.1 to 0.8 nm [39], therefore the output of the solar flare given by Eq.{21} and measured on the earth, will give the following classification:

Where, RRF is a reduction factor related to present system of solar flare classification [40], the solar flare class CSF, is in Watts per square meter.

Acrimony Used in This Paper

 is the previous magnetic field (starting with original field B1)

BEx : Continual produced ExMF

BMTEx : Sunspot momentarily Triggered  ExMF.

BSEI : Produced intense external magnetic field.

Bp(e) : Protons or electrons circular magnetic field (CMF)

BPS and BTEx : The ExMF produced by protons and electrons sunspots.

BTEx : Intensity of ExMF needed to trigger required distance of rr for Proton-Proton (or Electron-Electron) interaction

C : Speed of light.

CME : Coronal mass ejection

CSF : Solar flare class in Watts per square meter.

DH : Distance between two gyrating orbits.

DO : Distance between sunspot orbits.

EMLF : Elements of Magnetic Lines of Force

ExMF : External Magnetic Field

Fm : Magnetic force

Frc : Sunspots Connection  force.

FSPP(EE) : Spinning magnetic force (SMFc)) (or nuclear force for nucleons)

HS : Effective sunspot height.

l : Effective length of the magnetic lines of force (along which charged particles gyrates).

m : Mass of charged particles.

MIH : Magnetic Interaction Hypothesis.

NH : Number of protons or electron along the height.

NLO : Total number of fused protons or electron in a lengthy orbit.

NO : Number of protons or electrons in each orbit.

nm : Number of charged particles along one meter length

NOAA/SEC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NST : Total number of fused protons or electrons in sunspot.

NST : Total sunspot protons involve in fusion reaction.

OS1 : Sunspot first circumferential orbit.

OS : Circumferential distance in sunspot orbit.

OSx : Numbers of orbits along specific distance.

q : Elementary charge.

QSF : Solar flare energy

QTHe : Energy released due to fusion interaction.

RL : Number of orbits along a specific lengthy distance

rm2 : Magnetic radius.

rmT : Triggered gyrating radius

ro1 : First orbital radius in a sunspot.

rPES2 : Distance between two sunspots.

rr : Stability distances in spinning magnetic force(SMFc) or nuclear fusion ignition radius.

RRF : Reduction factor related to present system of solar flare classification

rp(e) : Proton or electron radius.

SDO : Solar Dynamic Observatory

SOHO : Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

SMFc : Spinning Magnetic Force

NTFM : Natural Triggered Flare Mechanism

TFMR : Triggered Magnetic Connection

UE : Universal Energies

vc : Velocity of captured charged particle.

γps : Relative magnitudes of the primary and secondary ExMF in the final production of solar ExMF


Thanks to God for having such wealthy knowledge, and those who help in continuation and spreading of these researches, to Kumaran Sanmugathasan, Paul Potter, Osman Abulgasim Ali Dinar, Thomas Cerilo, Castelo Garang, Yousif Adam and Arinjal K. Kunamoo .


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