THE MAGNETIC
INTERACTION
(Modified)
Mahmoud
E. Yousif
Email: info@exmfpropulsions.com
^{C}/_{O}
Physics Department  The
PACS No: 41.20.q, 21.10.Hw, 21.30.x, 94.20.Qq,
94.10.Rk, 34.20.Cf, 32.10.Dk, 34.50.Fa, 32.30.r
ABSTRACT
A magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH) is suggested which
leads to a reinterpretation of the interaction mechanism for the magnetic
force. This MIH is used to explain energization of charged particles on
micro scale. Further considerations including the nuclear force, interatomic
stability, and the reproduction of spectral lines, are reported.
1:0 INTRODUCTION
Energization mechanism for charged particles has been
a subject of much interest in the plasma physics [1]. The Sun emits these
particles during various phenomena (such as, the solar flares, and the solar
wind), [2,3] all of which interact with the geomagnetic field giving rise to
several phenomena such as, the ring current, the Van Allan radiation belt, and
the aurora in which the particles are highly accelerated, [4,5,6]. Many
theories have tried to explain such accelerations. Among them are: acceleration
by hydromagnetics shock waves, acceleration through atmospheric dynamo process,
and the electric field acceleration^{ }[3]. But they have not been able
to duplicate or explain the energization mechanism causing these phenomena^{
}[7]. Disclosing of this mechanism could help unlocking many of present
unsolved mysteries, such as, the nuclear force formula [8], nuclear fusion
mechanism [9], aurora mechanisms [10] and several other phenomena [11]. It is
known that the forces keeping electrons around nucleus, are both the
electrostatic and the electromagnetism [12], but no mechanism had been
suggested for it. This paper however tries to tackle these problems by (I)
reinterpreting the nature and mechanism of the magnetic force, and (ii)
suggesting a magnetic interaction hypothesis (MIH), through which any
generalised magnetic field interacts with a circular magnetic field (CMF)
and (iii) redefining the spinning magnetic
field (SMF) interaction in terms of the nuclear force that binds the
nucleons. Using both the CMF and SMF the atom formation,
interatomic energization processes and the reproduction of the spectral lines
are considered. MIH was published in 2003 [13], the present modification
readdress among others, the interatomic forces.
2:0 THE MAGNETIC FORCE
2:1 THE CIRCULAR MAGNETIC FIELD (CMF)
Through experience [14], the attractive and repulsive
forces between two conductors C_{1} and C_{2}
carrying electric currents I_{1} and I_{2}
separated by distance d metre, adopted for the definition of electric current
[14], is given electrically by
_{}
But since the above conductors (C_{1}
and C_{2}) carrying electric currents (I_{1}
and I_{2}) therefore, the circular magnetic field (CMF)
produced by each at a distance r_{C} from the conductor
is given by
_{}
Where, k= 2x10^{7}
As supposed by Faraday [15] magnetic lines of force
tends to shorten in length or repelling one another sideways, such that the
force obtained by Eq.(1) could be conceived as due to both conductor’s CMF
shorten or repelling each other, as shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, such that the
repulsive and attractive force is give magnetically by
_{}
Where, both B_{c1} and B_{C2}
are CMF (in Tesla) produced by conductors C_{1}
and C_{2} respectively, while r_{1}
and r_{2} are the CMF's radii in metre, l_{1}
is the length of the conductor in metre.
The Catapult force or the motor effect [12] is given
by:
_{}
Where, B_{1}
is the magnetic field, l_{2} is the length of the
conductor cutting the field in metre; I_{1} is the
current in the conductor in Ampere and the magnetic force F_{e.m}_{,}
given by electricmagnetic parameters is in Newton.
The repulsive and attractive nature of magnetic lines
of force causing Catapult force above, is express magnetically by
_{}
Where, B_{1} is a general
magnetic field, B_{C2} is the CMF produced
by the conductor, r_{2} is the radius of the CMF, l_{1}
is the length of the conductor producing the CMF that interact
with B_{1}, the magnetic force F_{m}
is in Newton. Table.1. Shows the parameters relating magnetic force given by
Eqs.(1), { 3}, (4) and {5}.
I_{1}=I_{2} A 
l_{1} m 
D M 
R M 
B_{1}=B_{C1}=B_{C2} T 
r_{1}=r_{2}=l_{3} m 
F_{e}=F_{m}=F_{e.m.}=F_{m} N 
1 
1 
2.0 
1.0 
2x10^{7} 
0.707106781 
1.0 x10^{7} 
1 
1 
1.6 
0.8 
2.5x10^{7} 
0.632455532 
1.25x10^{7} 
1 
1 
1.2 
0.6 
3.333333333x10^{7} 
0.547722557 
1.666666667x10^{7} 
1 
1 
1.0 
0.5 
4x10^{7} 
0.5 
2x10^{7} 
1 
1 
0.6 
0.3 
6.666666667x10^{7} 
0.387298334 
3.333333333x10^{7} 
1 
1 
0.4 
0.2 
1x10^{7} 
0.316227766 
5x10^{7} 
1 
1 
0.2 
0.1 
2x10^{7} 
0.223606797 
1x10^{6} 
Table.1. Samples of parameters that gives an
equivalent magnetic force in Eqs.(1), {3}, (4) and {5}, when used in its proper
equation.
From both Maxwell's and Einstein's theories about
magnetic field produced by charge in motion [16], it can be deduced that the
magnitude of the CMF (or B_{2e} and B_{2p}
for electron and proton respectively) produced by a charged particle in motion^{
}[17, 18, 19] is given by
Where, c is the speed of light, q
is the particle's charge in coulombs, v is the charged particles
velocity in ms^{1}, r_{m} is the magnetic radius
at which the CMF is measured (representing r_{me}
and r_{mp} or electron's and proton's magnetic radius
respectively). The circular magnetic field B_{2} is given
in Tesla.
The Lorentz force ascribed to the existence of
electrostatic field, used in explaining the characteristics of the magnetic
force [20], while the magnetic force as associated with moving source charges
is related to interaction of current bearing wire [21] shown by Eq.(1), the
force is given by
Where, q is the angle between the trajectory and the fields.
This force, is given with electricmagnetic parameters can be conceived to be
caused by the magnetic interaction, where, as shown in Fig.3 the CMF (B_{2})
given by Eq.(6) interact magnetically with the general magnetic field B_{1}
such that
_{}
Where, q is the angle between the two fields. While Fig.3
shows the magnetic interaction patterns between both the electron's CMF
and the proton's CMF with the general magnetic field B_{1},
Fig.4, shows variation of F_{m} with r_{m}.
2:2 THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD (SMF) and NUCLEAR
FORCE
2:2:1 THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FIELD
The magnetic field produced above the poles of the
spinning nucleon [22] is due to total magnetic field (B_{T}), and is
here identified as the spinning magnetic field (SMF). For proton, the
magnitude of the total magnetic field (B_{Tp}) produced above each
pole as shown in Fig.5.a, is derived from Newton’s second law, Coulomb’s
electrostatic law and BiotSavart law for magnetic field outside a loop [14],
given by:
Where, B_{1p} is proton's SMF
(B_{1U}
for nucleus hydrogen atom), f_{ps} is the proton's
spinning frequency, r_{O} is the radial distance from proton surface to a
point at which B_{TP} is produced (r_{o}=0.468 fm), r_{r}
is distance from proton's surface along the magnetic field, m_{O} is the permeability of the free space, e_{O}_{ }is the
permitivity of free space.
2:2:2 THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FORCE or (SMFc) THE NUCLEAR FORCE
When opposite proton's spinning magnetic field (PSMF)
comes under the field influence of each other as shown in Fig.5:a, an
attractive spinning magnetic force (SMF_{CA}) or (F_{NA})
is established as in Fig.5:b, and derived from Eq.{8}, this force is given by:
_{}
Which we here interpret as the nuclear force, In
according to characteristics given [8]. The SMFc or nuclear force
F_{N}
varies as shown in Fig.5.b, whereby at relatively large distances the
attraction of both SMF dominates up to r_{r} = 0.468fm (r
=0.936fm), (fm = 10^{15}) as given by Eq.{10}.
Thereafter, for r_{r} smaller than 0.468 fm, magnitude of the SMF
starts to decrease and so does F_{NA} given by the right
hand part of Eq.{11}.
For smaller values than r_{r} = 0.468 fm,
the preceding parts of the poles with similar SMFs interact with each
other thus producing an F_{NR} opposing the two
protons from fusing together, given by the left part of Eq.{11}. This repulsive
force (F_{NR}) is the resultant of both two forces, as shown
in Fig.5b, given by:
Where, n is the number of steps moved by SMF
starting from r = 0.8 fm (r_{r} = 0.4fm), r_{x} is the
distance moved at each step (r = 0.05fm), the characteristics are
shown in Fig.5.
Combining Eqs.{10} and {11}, the spinning magnetic
force (F_{S}) or the nuclear force (F_{N}) is given
by:
3:0 ENERGIZATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES
Assuming a system (such as that of Fig.3) if the
magnetic field which is denoted by B_{1} is in three
dimensions rotation or motion, when an electron's or proton's CMF
(B_{2e}
and B_{2p}
respectively) interacts with the B_{1}, then the
resulting magnetic force between both fields also joins the charged particles
such that they all move with the magnetic field (B_{1}).
Thus if the magnetic force travels
a distance d_{K} (d_{X}
= d_{Y} + d_{Z}) in unit time, then
the work done is given by [23]
Which is equal to the total (kinetic and potential)
change in energy of the body acted on by the force [24] since the displacement
and the magnetic force are in the same sense and direction, therefore from
Eq.{13} the kinetic energy K of the charged particles is given
by:
Where, B_{1} is the rotating
magnetic field, B_{2} is the CMF, r_{m} is the
radius of gyration, q is the angle between the two fields at interaction
moment.
Fig.6, shows the relationship between different solar
wind electrons velocities verses values at which it has been energized at
microscopic level, at the magnetopause boundaries, where q = 90^{O}.
4:0 MAGNETIC
INTERACTION AND ATOMIC MODEL
4:1 INTERATOMIC FORCES AND STABILITY
Based on this hypothesis, whenever an electron comes
under the influence of a nucleus electric field at an electrostatic distance r_{e}
the electron is accelerated by the electrostatic force such that its velocity v_{c}
and CMF
increases. Thus at a specific radius regulated by m_{e} in Eq.{25}, the electron will interact magnetically with the nucleus spin
magnetic field (NSMF) forming an atom, or increasing the nucleus constituent. NSMF
in its simplest form comprising the proton spinning magnetic field PSMF
to form a hydrogen atom when interacted with electron's CMF.
At specific electrostatic atomic radius r_{ee}
the electrostatic force F_{e} is balanced with the
produced magnetic force F_{m}, and both forces are
balanced with the centripetal force (F_{C})}, leading to the
stability of the atom as shown in Fig.7, for hydrogen atom and given generally
by Eq.{15} bellow, while the degree of this stability is determined by m_{e} in Eq.{25}. The balance of forces is such that
Where, B_{1U} is the nucleus SMF,
B_{2e} is orbital electron’ CMF, m_{e}
is electron's mass, r_{ee} is the electron's electrostatic atomic radius, r_{me}
is the electron's magnetic radius, v_{o} is electron's natural
orbital velocity around the nucleus, e_{O} is the permittivity of the free space.
But the centripetal force linked both forces is equal
to their resultant forces, therefore the above equation becomes
As both Eq.(7) and Eq.{8} are equals, thus
From the balance of electrostatic and magnetic forces
given by Eq.{17} above, the electrostatic orbital atomic radius r_{ee}
at which an electron stabilised is given by
_{}
Relating Eq.{17} with angular momentum introduced by
Bohr, in his atomic hypothesis [25], the electrostatic orbital radius r_{ee}
is also given by
While the
orbital velocity v_{O} could be derived from Eq.{32}, or from Bohr
atomic hypothesis [25]
Where, h is Planck's constant.
4:2 ELECTRONS’ PARAMETERS AT ORBITAL RADIUS
We assumed that the stability of an atom at certain
orbital radius is due to the balance of both F_{e} and F_{m}
with F_{C},
as shown in Fig.7, with parameters given in Table.2. Hence the electrostatic
atomic radius r_{ee} (all of the following parameters are derived
from Eq.{17}, as given in Table.2.) at orbital level take the form
While the magnetic radius r_{me} (equal to
Bohr radius r_{B}) takes the form
Where, r_{B} is Bohr radius, and
the SMF
radius r_{r} is given by:
And the NSMF (B_{1U}) or B_{1p}
for hydrogen atom is given by:
For hydrogen atom, parameters obtained due to the
balance of both F_{e} and F_{m}
with F_{C} are
given in Table.2. From Eq.{22}, the electrostatic atomic radius also could be given
by
Parameters 
Magnitudes 

Electrostatic and Magnetic Forces 
F_{e} = F_{m} 
8.257749961 x10^{8} N 
InterAtomic Forces 
2F_{c} = F_{e}+F_{m}

8.257749961 x10^{8} N 
Electrostatic Atomic Radius 
r_{ee} ^{} 
0.528566407 x10^{10 }m 
Magnetic Radius 
r_{me} = r_{B }^{} 
0.5291793603 x10^{10 }m 
Stable Orbital Velocity 
V_{O} 
2190219.655 m.s^{1} 
SMF radius 
r_{r } 
2.546269208 x10^{12}m 
NSMF 
B_{1}_{U } 
235322.5112 T 
Electron's SMF 
B_{2e } 
0.417706473 T 
Magnetic Moment 
µ_{e } 
9.284770122 x10^{24}_{ }J/T 
Table.2. Electron's parameters at natural in for
hydrogen atom. This Table should be read in connection with Fig.7, and Eqs.{16,
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 31}.
The flipping effect (i.e. the magnetic moment)
produced in magnetic resonance experiments [9] are seen as, the response of an
energetic charged particle's CMF to any specific magnetic field.
For an electron in an atom, this magnetic moment (m_{e} = E_{O}/B_{U})
is obtained by substituting electron’s orbital energy and nucleus SMF
given by Eq.{24} in the following sequence
Where, B_{1U} is nucleus spinning
magnetic field (NSMF), m_{B} is Bohr magneton, m_{e} is atomic electron magnetic moment related to atom
stability.
Eq.{26} can be used to determine the stability orbit
for both the electron's CMF and NSMF as shown in Fig.7,
and numerically as in Table.2, for atomic hydrogen.
5:0 INTERATOMIC ENERGIZATION and the REPRODUCTION of
SPECTRAL LINE
From the magnetic interaction hypothesis based on
Eqs.{8}, {13} and {14}, any electron gyrating at its natural orbit in an atom
under the influence of the spinning magnetic force, continually undergoes an
energization process so that it acquires an amount of orbital energy
With reference to Fig.8, whenever such an electron is
subjected to an excitation potential, both its kinetic energy and the CMF
(B_{2e})
increases and hence the magnetic force increases as well. This force increases the orbital radius so
that the radial energy change is obtained as
Where, v_{D} is the excitation
velocity, r_{n} is the excited orbital radius. The quanta of energy acquired by the electron
at that radius will be radiated as an electromagnetic radiation, the sequence
of which is shown in Table,3., with the wavelength given by
_{}
From Eqs.{18} and {27}, the general excitation energy
at any radial distance within the atomic excitation range becomes
Where, v_{n} = v_{D} + v_{O}
, i.e. the excited radial velocity.
E_{D} Ve 
V_{n} m.s 
B_{2n} T 
F_{n} x10^{7} N 
r_{n} x10^{11} m 
F_{r} x10^{8} N 
E_{n} Ve 
l Å 
5.0 
3516424.623 
0.6706328886 
1.325791924 
8.496039785 
5.000169275 
13.257470411 
0935.8503044 
3.399525 
3283759.893 
0.626260367 
1.238070714 
7.933898117 
4.122957183 
10.20833388 
1215.380283 
1.0 
2783316.547 
0.530818604 
1.049389364 
6.724776059 
2.236143679 
4.692853031 
2643.809136 
Table.3. Samples of sequences through which an excited
electron in hydrogen atom transverse, before radiating specific wavelength using
Eq.{28}, as shown in Fig.8.
Thus the radiated wavelength l due to such a specific energy quantum (an example of
which is shown in Table.4, to be compared with Table.3.) is given by
Hence,
No 
E_{D} Ve 
V_{n} m.s 
l Å 
1 
5.0 
3516424.623 
0935.8503044 
2 
3.399525 
3283759.893 
1215.380284 
3 
1.0 
2783316.547 
2643.809137 
Table.4 Reproduction of spectral lines by excited
electrons, using Eq.{31} and Eq.{32}, reducing steps used in Table.3.
6:0 DISCUSSION
1
Although magnetic fields are produced due to relative motion of charged
particles, the direct cause of the magnetic force is here considered to result
from the interaction of magnetic fields. This interaction explains the
mechanism behind the attractive and the repulsive forces between any two wires
carrying electric currents as shown in Fig.2. It also explains the orbital
excitation energy characteristics for charged particles and why the direction
gyration of an electron is opposite to that of a proton, as shown in Fig.3.
2 The exponential nature of Fig.5 is due to the
production of spinning magnetic fields, and above proton's surface (r
= 0.468fm) as proved for neutron’s SMF [26], compared with Fig.4.
3 The exact measured magnitude of the nuclear force
for the proton is determined by the magnitude of produced B_{Tp} given by
Eq.{9}. In this case it is related to the magnetic moment value. Since the
value of the proton's angular frequency (w_{p}) has been determined as 0.5 rad. sec. (i.e. from
Eqs.{26},{27},{28},{29},{30}, and {31}), therefore its spinning frequency (f_{ps})
is of the magnitude of 0.079577471 s^{1}, from which B_{Tp}
is derived.
4 The CMF interaction with the magnetic
field (B_{1}) is represented in Fig.3. The same mechanism
occurred inside an atom where the balance of both the F_{e} and F_{m}
with F_{C} at specific r_{ee} and r_{me}
brings stability to the atom, as shown in Fig.7.
5 The nature of the magnetic interaction is that, the
weaker CMF (B_{2}) interacts with the
stronger magnetic field (B_{1}) at two specific
points. These two points arise due to
the variation in the strength of B_{1p} as shown in Fig.7,
for hydrogen atom.
6 From Eqs.{18}, {20} and {24}, the value of r_{ee}
include proton's radius r_{p}, and electron's radius
r_{e}.
Both are thought to be equal, and derived from Eq.{9}.
7 The Bohr radius (r_{B}), giving in the right hand side of Eq.{22}, is
resulted from the balance of both the Coulomb's electrostatic and centripetal
forces, (with value of 0.5291793603x10^{10} m) [27, 28], it gives the
same value given by the magnetic radius (r_{me}),
therefore both are equal and given by Eq.{22} and shown in Table.2.
8 The known value for electron's orbital angular
momentum (L_{o})^{ }[29] is 1.054x10^{34} kg.m^{2}s^{1}.
While the value obtained from Table.2, parameters are 1.054572669x10^{34}
kg.m^{2}s^{1 }using r_{ee}.
9 Electron's magnetic moment m_{e} = 9.284770119x10^{24} j/T obtained from
multiplication of Bohr magneton (m_{B}) [30] by 1.001159652193 as verified by experiments [22,
31], is obtained with the same value using any of Eq.{26}, thus Bohr magneton (m_{B}) gives correct magnetic moment value when using
correct parameters (v_{O} and r_{me}).
10 The electrostatic radius, r_{ee} which
determined v_{o}, F_{e}, r_{me}, r_{r},
and B_{1U}
is derived by Eq.{19} using (m_{e} and h), or Eq.{21}, or Eq.{25}, all of which
give the value of 0.528566407x10^{10}m, and given in Table.2.
11 The v_{o} is derived either from
Planck's relation Eq.{20} or the radiated spectral line, given by Eq.{32}.
12 The known proton's radius (r_{p}) [22], is
1x10^{15} m, while from Eq.{9}, r_{p}=1.1060236231x10^{15
}m.
13 The excitation energy (E_{D}) is
relative to the ionisation energy^{ }[27, 28], for hydrogen atom the
ionisation energy, used in Eqs. {27},{28},{29} {30} and{31} is 13.5981 eV^{ }[26].
14 For any atom if both the radiated wavelength l and the excitation velocity v_{D} is known
then the electron's natural orbital velocity v_{o} (at natural orbital
radius) can be obtained using Eqs.{20} or {32}.
15 With reference to two points above, atomic
spectral lines can be reproduced as shown in Fig.8. While Table.3, shows the
reproduction sequential mechanism, and Table.4, summarised all of Table.3,
using only Eq.{31}, both tables gives the same results.
16 Energy changes for charged particles therefore take
the following two forms:
(a) The normal
work done due to the displacement of the magnetic force from the normal orbital
radius (r_{me}) to the excitation orbital radius (r_{n})
inside an atom, the energy of which is radiated, as shown in Fig.8.
(b)Starting
from the single particle microlevel, energy as given by Eq.{14} and
shown in Fig.6, electrons and protons can proceed to higher radial energy, due
to the produced external magnetic field (ExMF). The several steps
of energization may lead to acceleration mechanisms, such as those found in the
magnetopause boundary in the transition region [3, 32], both aurora oval [6],
and stable aurora red arc system (SARarc) [33], radiation belts [3], and the
ring current's [6] comprising charged particles.
17 From Fig.5:b. The degree of stability
for two nucleons depends on the equilibrium distance, where attraction and
repulsion forces are balanced, similar to forces between two atoms [34].
Relative unbalance of the nuclear force magnitude causes the vibration (or
oscillation) motion of both nucleons (around 0.7 Fm, as shown in Fig.5.b.).
Similar to the molecule's vibration motion of the spring form, associated with
energy [35, 36]. Larger nucleus B_{TU} magnitudes, give
higher oscillations and lower nucleus nuclear stability, with the associated
energy and consequently leading to decay processes.
18 From
point (15), the smallest excitation potential of 1.982807168x10^{3 }eV
can reproduce Pfund series of 74599.21569Å in hydrogen atom. This therefore
reveals the precision of all natural phenomena mechanisms.
19 The
1922, silver atoms beam experiment carried out by Otto Stern and Walther
Gerlach, where the beam split into two subbeams on the detecting plate by the
action of the electromagnetic field [29].
The
experiment is reinterpreted as:
(a) While
in motion, the silver atom NSMF foreheads consist of both NSMF.
(b) In
uniform field, each forward NSMF detected the field as
relatively equal magnitude of B.
Thus F =
(B_{1}) (B_{2N}) r^{2} c, gives net F = 0.
(c) In no
uniform field, each of the NSMF interacted as follow:
NSMF is attracted upward by F = (+B_{1}) (B_{2U})
r^{2} c.
+NSMF is repelled downward by +F = (+B_{1}) (+B_{2U})
r^{2} c.
Therefore
the silver atoms formed split on the detected glass.
20 The
measured nuclear force between two protons which is (45)^{2} times
greater than the electric force [8], is reinterpreted as kinetic energy phase
of great accelerated nucleons.
21 The MIH
open the door for several new ideas in many fields.
22
Physical constant used, are:
q = 1.60217733x10^{19}
C.
m = 9.1093897x10^{31}
kg.
h = 6.6260755x10^{34}
J.s [12].
e_{O}_{ }=
8.854223x10^{12} C^{2}.N^{1}.m^{2} [37].
Acknowledgement
My gratitude to my sister Sophya and her
husband Abubakar Mohamad and children for their hospitality. The Chairman of
Physics Department, University of Nairobi, Prof. B.O. Kola for providing the
scientific umbrella, and Dr John Buers Awuor and Dr Lino Gwaki in the Physics
Department without whom this work could not have taken the present form. Late
Cdr Yousif Kuwa Makki, SPLA/M commander in the Nuba Mountains, for his moral
supports, Cdr. Malik Agar, Cdr Abdulaziz A. Alhilu, Dr. Tajudeen AbdulRaheem, Ms
Fatma Abdulgadir, the stuff of Nuba Relief Rehabilitation and Development
Organization (NRRDO), particularly Mr Ali Abdulrahman , Amar Amon and Jacob
Idriss. Brothers and sisters, Mustafa, Mahamad, Halima, Hukmalla, Arafa, Asha, Ahmad and Esmaeil.
Finally, Dr Ali Khogali, Prof.John O. Owino, Dr C. Oludha, Dr P. Baki,
ShiekhEldien Mousa, Katoo T. Nzivo, Chiromo Library Stuff, Kenya National
Library and University of Makerery Library (Uganda).
7:0 Glossaries
B_{1}: Magnetic field
B_{1U}: Nucleus spinning magnetic field (NSMF)
B_{2}: The CMF
B_{2e}: Electron's CMF.
B_{2e}: Orbital electron’ CMF
B_{2p}: Proton's CMF.
B_{T}: Total Magnetic Field.
B_{Tp}: Proton's total magnetic field.
CMF: Circular
magnetic field.
d_{K} (d_{X} = d_{Y}
+ d_{Z}): Energization distance travels by magnetic force.
ExMF: External Magnetic Field.
F_{C}: Centripetal force.
F_{e}: Electrostatic force.
F_{m}: Magnetic force.
f_{ps}: Proton's Spinning frequency.
h:
Planck's constant.
K: Kinetic
energy of charged particles.
L_{o}: Electron's orbital angular momentum.
m_{e}: Electron's mass.
MIH: Magnetic
Interaction Hypothesis.
NSMF: Nucleus
spinning magnetic field.
PSMF: Proton's
Spinning Magnetic Field.
r_{B}: Bohr radius.
r_{ee}: Electron's electrostatic atomic radius.
r_{m}: Magnetic radius of gyration.
r_{me}: Electron's magnetic radius (equivalent of Bohr
radius).
r_{n}: Excitation orbital radius.
r_{r}: SMF radius.
SMF: Spinning
magnetic field.
SMF_{CA}: Attractive spinning magnetic force.
v_{c}: Charged particles velocity.
v_{o}: Electron's natural orbital velocity around the
nucleus.
v_{n} = v_{D} + v_{O}: The excited radial velocity.
e_{O}: Permittivity of the free space.
q : Angle between two fields at interaction moment.
l: Wavelength.
m_{B}: Bohr magneton.
m_{e}: Atomic electron magnetic moment related to atom stability.
w_{p}: Proton's angular frequency.
8:0 REFERENCE
[1] Lehnert B. 1964 Dynamics of Charged Particles,
North Holland Publication co.
[2] Chapman, S. 1967
(Perspective) Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena Vol.I, Edt. By
[3] Kern, J. W. 1967 (Magnetosphere and Radiation
Belt), Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Vol.II, Edt. By
[4] Matsushita S. 1967 (Geomagnetic Disturbances and
Storms) Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Vol.II, Edt. By
[5] Axford, W.I. 1967 (The Interaction Between the
Solar Wind and The Magnetosphere) Aurora
and Airglow, Proceeding of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at The
University Of Keele, Staffordshire, England August 1526,1966, Edt. By Billy
M. McCormac, Reinhold Book Cor.
[6] Akasofu, S.I. and S. Chapman 1967 (Geomagnetic
Storms and
[7] Chapman S. 1968 (Auroral Science, 1600 To 1965,
Towards its Golden Age), Auroral Science, Atmospheric Emission, NATO Advanced
Study Institute,
[8]
[9] Elwell D. and A.J. 1978 Pointon Physics for
Engineers and Scientists, Ellis Horwood Ltd.
[10] Bengt Hultqvist 1967 (
[11] The Report of The National Commission on Space
1986 Pioneering The Space Frontier, Bantom Books,
[12] Trinklein, F. E. 1990 Modern Physics, Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, N.Y), pp 479.
[13] Yousif, Mahmoud E. “The Magnetic
Interaction”, at: http://d1002391.mydomainwebhost.com/JOT/Links/Papers/MY.pdf
09Oct2003a.
[14] D.
[15] Nightingale E., 1958 Magnetism and Electricity,
G. Bell and Sons Ltd.
[16]
[17] Alonso M. and E. J. Finn 1967 Fundamental
University Physics Vol. II Field and Waves, Addison and Wesley, Massachusetts, pp
530.
[18] Ballif, J.R. 1969Conceptual Physics, John Wiley
& Sons,
[19] Fuch, W. R. 1967 Modern Physics, Weidenfield and
Nicolson (Educational) Ltd., and The Macmillan for Translation,
[20] Plonsey, R. and R. E. Collin 1961 Principle
Applications of Electromagnetic Fields, Tata McGrawHill Publ. Cop. Ltd.
[21] French, A.P. 1968 Special relativity, Nelson,
[22] Halliday, D., R. Resnick and K. S. Krane 1978
Physics Vol.II, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 813.
[23] Avison,J. 1989 The World of Physics, Nelson,
[24] Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics 1961
J.Tewlis, Pergamon Press,
[25] Martindala, G. David, Robert W. Heath, Philip C.
Eastman 1986 Fundamental of Physics, Heath Canada Ltd.
[26] McGrawHill Encyclopaedia of Science and
Technology 1982 5th edition, Vol.14,
McGrawHill Book Co.,
[27] Krane K. S. 1983 Modern Physics John Wiley &
Sons,
[28] Giancoli, D. C. 1980 General Physics,
PrenticeHall Inc.,
[29] Swartz, C. E. 1981 Phenomenal Physics, John Wiley
and Sons, N.Y.
[30] Halliday, D. and R. Resnick 1986 Modern Physics
Chapter for Physics third edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 1175, 11811185.
[31] Halliday, D. and R. Resnick 1988 Fundamentals of
Physics, John Wiley & Sons Inc., N.Y.
[32] Heppner J.P. 1967 (Satellite and Rocket
Observations) Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Vol.II, Edt. By
[33] Cole K. D. 1967 the D Main Phase and Certain
Associated Phenomena), Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Vol.II, Edt. By
[34] Freeman,
[35] Toon E. R. and G. L. Ellis 1973 Foundation of
Chemistry, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Ltd, NY, pp353356.
[36] Oxtoby David W. and Nachtrieb Norman H. 1991
Principle of Modern Chemistry (Study Guide and Student Solutions Manuales),
[37] Tuma, Jan J. 1979 Engineering Mathematics
Handbook, McGrawHill Book Company,
Published by: